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91.
Sensitivity to keV-MeV dark matter from cosmic-ray scattering with current and the upcoming ground-based arrays CTA and SWGO
Igor Reis, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: A wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observational evidence shows that the matter content of the universe is made of about 85% of non-baryonic dark matter. Huge experimental efforts have been deployed to look for the direct detection of dark matter via their scattering on target nucleons, their production in colliders, and their indirect detection via their annihilation products. Inelastic scattering of high-energy cosmic rays off dark matter particles populating the Milky Way halo would produce secondary gamma rays in the final state from the decay of the neutral pions produced in such interactions, providing a new avenue to probe dark matter properties. We compute here the sensitivity for H.E.S.S.-like observatory, a current-generation ground-based Cherenkov telescopes, to the expected gamma-ray flux from collisions of Galactic cosmic rays and dark matter in the center of the Milky Way. We also derive sensitivity prospects for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO). The expected sensitivity allows us to probe a poorly-constrained range of dark matter masses so far, ranging from keV to sub-GeV, and provide complementary constraints on the dark matter-proton scattering cross section traditionally probed by deep underground direct dark matter experiments.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, very-high-energy gamma-ray astroparticle physics, instrument response functions, machine learning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 1056; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (713,85 KB)
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92.
Search for primary photons at tens of PeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Nicolás González, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The observation of primary photons with energies around 10[sup]16 eV would be particularly interesting after the discovery of Galactic gamma-ray sources with spectra extending into the PeV range. Since photons are connected to the acceleration of charged particles, searches for photons enhance the multi-messenger understanding of cosmic-ray sources as well as of transient astrophysical phenomena, while offering wealthy connections to neutrino astronomy and dark matter. Additionally, diffuse photon fluxes are expected from cosmic-ray interactions with Galactic matter and background radiation fields. Previously, the energy domain between 1 PeV and 200 PeV was only explored from the Northern Hemisphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest astroparticle experiment in operation and, thanks to its location, has a sizable exposure to the Southern sky, including the Galactic center region. In this contribution, we present the first search for photons from the Southern hemisphere between 50 and 200 PeV exploiting the Auger data acquired during ∼4 yr of operation. We describe the method to discriminate photons against the dominating hadronic background; it is based on the measurements of air showers taken with the low-energy extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory composed by 19 water-Cherenkov detectors spanning ∼ 2km[sup]2 and an Underground Muon Detector. The search for a diffuse flux of photons is presented and its results are interpreted according to theoretical model predictions. This study extends the range of Auger photon searches to almost four decades in energy.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, cosmic rays, photons, water-Cherenkov detectors, underground muon detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 1074; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (707,98 KB)
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93.
Detecting and characterizing pulsar halos with the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory
Christopher Eckner, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The recently identified source class of pulsar halos may be populated and bright enough at TeV energies to constitute a large fraction of the sources that will be observed with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), especially in the context of the planned Galactic Plane Survey (GPS). In this study, we examine the prospects offered by CTA for the detection and characterization of such objects. CTA will cover energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, bridging the ranges already probed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, and will also have a better angular resolution than the latter instruments, thus providing a complementary look at the phenomenon. From simple models for individual pulsar halos and their population in the Milky Way, we examine under which conditions such sources can be detected and studied from the GPS observations. In the framework of a full spatial-spectral likelihood analysis, using the most recent estimates for the instrument response function and prototypes for the science tools, we derive the spectral and morphological sensitivity of the CTA GPS to the specific intensity distribution of pulsar halos. From these, we quantify the physical parameters for which pulsar halos can be detected, identified, and characterized, and what fraction of the Galactic population could be accessible. We also discuss the effect of interstellar emission and data analysis systematics on these prospects.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, very-high-energy gamma-ray astroparticle physics, instrument response functions, machine learning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 1003; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,20 MB)
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94.
Performance update of an event-type based analysis for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
J. Bernete, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next-generation observatory in the field of very-high-energy (20 GeV to 300 TeV) gamma-ray astroparticle physics. The traditional approach to data analysis in this field is to apply quality cuts, optimized using Monte Carlo simulations, on the data acquired to maximize sensitivity. Subsequent steps of the analysis typically use the surviving events to calculate one set of instrument response functions (IRFs) to physically interpret the results. However, an alternative approach is the use of event types, as implemented in experiments such as the Fermi-LAT. This approach divides events into sub-samples based on their reconstruction quality, and a set of IRFs is calculated for each sub-sample. The sub-samples are then combined in a joint analysis, treating them as independent observations. In previous works we demonstrated that event types, classified using Machine Learning methods according to their expected angular reconstruction quality, have the potential to significantly improve the CTA angular and energy resolution of a point-like source analysis. Now, we validated the production of event-type wise full-enclosure IRFs, ready to be used with science tools (such as Gammapy and ctools). We will report on the impact of using such an event-type classification on CTA high-level performance, compared to the traditional procedure.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, very-high-energy gamma-ray astroparticle physics, instrument response functions, machine learning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 1109; Prenosov: 7
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95.
Potential of the Cherenkov Telescope Array for studying the young nearby supernova remnants
Dmitry A. Prokhorov, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Modern imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes have extensively observed young nearby su-pernova remnants (SNRs), with ages of about 1000 years or less, in the very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray band. These efforts resulted in the detection of VHE emission from three young SNRs – Cassiopeia A, Tycho, and SN 1006 – and provided significant evidence for emission from the more distant Kepler’s SNR. However, many questions on the production of VHE gamma rays in these remnants remain unanswered. Using detailed physical models for Tycho’s SNR based on the CR-hydro-NEI code and physically motivated models for the other young nearby remnants, we simulated observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) of these gamma-ray sources. We highlight properties of these remnants accessible for investigation with future CTA observa-tions and discuss which questions are expected to be answered.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, supernova remnants, young nearby supernova
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 943; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (635,43 KB)
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96.
ctapipe - prototype open event reconstruction pipeline for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Maximilian Linhoff, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO) is the next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory currently under construction. It will improve over the current genera-tion of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) by a factor of five to ten in sensitivity and it will be able to observe the whole sky from a combination of two sites: a northern site in La Palma, Spain, and a southern one in Paranal, Chile. CTAO will also be the first open ground-based gamma-ray observatory. Accordingly, the CTAO data processing pipeline is developed as open-source software and ctapipe will be a core package therein. The event reconstruction pipeline accepts raw data of the telescopes and processes it to produce suitable input for the higher-level science tools. Its primary tasks include reconstructing the physical properties of each recorded air shower and providing the corresponding instrument response functions. ctapipe is a python framework providing algorithms and command-line tools to facilitate raw data calibration, image extraction, image parametrization and event reconstruction. Its current main focus is the analysis of simulated data but it has also been successfully applied for the analysis of data obtained with the CTA prototype telescopes, and first science results have now been obtained by the LST-1 collaboration using ctapipe. A plugin system also allows the processing of non-CTA data. Recent updates, including event reconstruction using machine learning and a new plugin system as well as the roadmap towards a 1.0 release will be presented.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, CTAO, ground-based gamma-ray observatory, ctapipe
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 926; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,18 MB)
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97.
Interpolation of Instrument Response Functions for the Cherenkov Telescope Array in the context of pyirf
R. M. Dominik, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory, constituted by tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes at two sites once its construction and commissioning are finished. Like its predecessors, CTA relies on Instrument Response Functions (IRFs) to relate the observed and reconstructed properties to the true ones of the primary gamma-ray photons. IRFs are needed for the proper reconstruction of spectral and spatial information of the observed sources and are thus among the data products issued to the observatory users. They are derived from Monte Carlo simulations, depend on observation conditions like the telescope pointing direction or the atmospheric transparency and can evolve with time as hardware ages or is replaced. Producing a complete set of IRFs from simulations for every observation taken is a time-consuming task and not feasible when releasing data products on short timescales. Consequently, interpolation techniques on simulated IRFs are investigated to quickly estimate IRFs for specific observation conditions. However, as some of the IRFs constituents are given as probability distributions, specialized methods are needed. This contribution summarizes and compares the feasibility of multiple approaches to interpolate IRF components in the context of the pyirf python software package and IRFs simulated for the Large-Sized Telescope prototype (LST-1). We will also give an overview of the current functionalities implemented in pyirf.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory, pyirf
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 1034; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (987,03 KB)
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98.
Constraints on BSM particles from the absence of upward-going air showers in the Pierre Auger Observatory
Baobiao Yue, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory has a large exposure to search for upward-going showers. Constraints have been recently obtained by using 14 years of FD data searching for upward-going showers in the zenith angle range [110◦, 180◦]. In this work, we translate these bounds to upper limits of a possible flux of ultra high energy tau-leptons escaping from the Earth into the atmosphere. Such a mechanism could explain the observation of "anomalous pulses" made by ANITA, that indicated the existence of upward-going air showers with energies above 10[sup]17 eV. As tau neutrinos would be absorbed within the Earth at the deduced angles and energies, a flux of upward-going taus could only be resulted from an unknown type of ultra high energy Beyond Standard Model particle penetrating the Earth with little attenuation, and then creating tau-leptons through interactions within a maximum depth of about 50 km before exiting. We test classes of such models in a generic way and determine upper flux limits of ultra high energy BSM particles as a function of their unknown cross section with matter.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence detector, upward-going air showers, Beyond Standard Model particles
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 947; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (544,10 KB)
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99.
The fitting procedure for longitudinal shower profiles observed with the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. A. Bellido, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory uses fluorescence telescopes in conjunction with ground level particle detectors to measure high-energy cosmic rays and reconstruct, with greater precision, their arrival direction, their energy and the depth of shower maximum. The depth of shower maximum is important to infer cosmic ray mass composition. The fluorescence detector is capable of directly measuring the longitudinal shower development, which is used to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy and the atmospheric depth of shower maximum. However, given the limited field of view of the fluorescence detector, the shower profile is not always fully contained within the detector observation volume. Therefore, considerations need to be taken in order to reconstruct some events. In this contribution we will describe the method that the Pierre Auger Collaboration uses to reconstruct the longitudinal profiles of showers and present the details of its performance, namely its resolution and systematic uncertainties.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, longitudinal shower profiles
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.09.2023; Ogledov: 1137; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (827,67 KB)
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100.
Searching for very-high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave events with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Barbara Patricelli, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The detection of electromagnetic (EM) emission following the gravitational wave (GW) event GW170817 opened the era of multi-messenger astronomy with GWs and provided the first direct evidence that at least a fraction of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are progenitors of short Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). GRBs are also expected to emit very-high energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) photons, as proven by the recent MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations. One of the challenges for future multi-messenger observations will be the detection of such VHE emission from GRBs in association with GWs. In the next years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a key instrument for the EM follow-up of GW events in the VHE range, owing to its unprecedented sensitivity, rapid response, and capability to monitor a large sky area via scan-mode operation. We present the CTA GW follow-up program, with a focus on the searches for short GRBs possibly associated with BNS mergers. We investigate the possible observational strategies and we outline the prospects for the detection of VHE EM counterparts to transient GW events.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high energy photons, gravitational waves, gravitational wave counterparts
Objavljeno v RUNG: 19.09.2023; Ogledov: 1257; Prenosov: 6
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