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61.
Extraction of the Muon Signals Recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory Using Recurrent Neural Networks
J.M. Carceller, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a method based on the use of Recurrent Neural Networks to extract the muon component from the time traces registered with water-Cherenkov detector (WCD) stations of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The design of the WCDs does not allow to separate the contribution of muons to the time traces obtained from the WCDs from those of photons, electrons and positrons for all events. Separating the muon and electromagnetic components is crucial for the determination of the nature of the primary cosmic rays and properties of the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies. We trained a neural network to extract the muon and the electromagnetic components from the WCD traces using a large set of simulated air showers, with around 450 000 simulated events. For training and evaluating the performance of the neural network, simulated events with energies between 10^18.5 eV and 10^20 eV and zenith angles below 60 degrees were used. We also study the performance of this method on experimental data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and show that our predicted muon lateral distributions agree with the parameterizations obtained by the AGASA collaboration.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, muons, machine learning, recurrent neural network
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 1042; Prenosov: 6
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62.
Monte Carlo simulations for the Pierre Auger Observatory using the VO auger grid resources
E. Santos, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located near Malargüe, Argentina, is the world’s largest cosmic-ray detector. It comprises a 3000 km^2 surface detector and 27 fluorescence telescopes, which measure the lateral and longitudinal distributions of the many millions of air-shower particles produced in the interactions initiated by a cosmic ray in the Earth’s atmosphere. The determination of the nature of cosmic rays and studies of the detector performances rely on extensive Monte Carlo simulations describing the physics processes occurring in extensive air showers and the detector responses. The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations task is to produce and provide the Auger Collaboration with reference libraries used in a wide variety of analyses. All multipurpose detector simulations are currently produced in local clusters using Slurm and HTCondor. The bulk of the shower simulations are produced on the grid, via the Virtual Organization auger, using the DIRAC middleware. The job submission is made via python scripts using the DIRAC-API. The Auger site is undergoing a major upgrade, which includes the installation of new types of detectors, demanding increased simulation resources. The novel detection of the radio component of extensive air showers is the most challenging endeavor, requiring dedicated shower simulations with very long computation times, not optimized for the grid production. For data redundancy, the simulations are stored on the Lyon server and the grid Disk Pool Manager and are accessible to the Auger members via iRODS and DIRAC, respectively. The CERN VMFile System is used for software distribution where, soon, the Auger Offline software will also be made available.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface detection, radio detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, Monte Carlo simulation, computing resources, compute clusters, high capacity storage
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 975; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,54 MB)
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63.
Status and performance of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A.M. Botti, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory, whose purpose is to lower the energy threshold of the observatory down to 10^16.5 eV, and to measure the muonic content of air showers directly. These measurements will significantly contribute to the determination of primary particle masses in the range between the second knee and the ankle, to the study of hadronic interaction models with air showers, and, in turn, to the understanding of the muon puzzle. The underground muon detector of AMIGA is concomitant to two triangular grids of water-Cherenkov stations with spacings of 433 and 750 m; each grid position is equipped with a 30 m^2 plastic scintillator buried at 2.3 m depth. After the engineering array completion in early 2018 and general improvements to the design, the production phase commenced. In this work, we report on the status of the underground muon detector, the progress of its deployment, and the performance achieved after two years of operation. The detector construction is foreseen to finish by mid-2022.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, AMIGA, indirect detection, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, muon detection
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 1092; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,21 MB)
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64.
Satellite Data for Atmospheric Monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Puyleart, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Atmospheric monitoring over the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory can be supplemented by satellite data. Methods for night-time cloud detection and aerosol cross-checking were created using the GOES-16 and Aeolus satellites, respectively. The geostationary GOES-16 satellite provides a 100% up-time view of the cloud cover over the observatory. GOES-13 was used until the end of 2017 for cloud monitoring, but with its retirement a method based on GOES-16 data was developed. The GOES-16 cloud detection method matches the observatory’s vertical laser cloud detection method at a rate of ∼90%. The Aeolus satellite crosses the Pierre Auger Observatory several times throughout the year firing UV-laser shots. The laser beams leave a track of scattered light in the atmosphere that can be observed by the light sensors of the observatory fluorescence telescopes. Using a parametric model of the aerosol concentration, the laser shots can be reconstructed with different combinations of the aerosol parameters. A minimization procedure then yields the parameter set that best describes the aerosol attenuation. Furthermore, the possibility of studying horizontal homogeneity of aerosols across the array is being investigated.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, atmospheric monitoring, satellite monitoring, cloud detection, aerosols, UV laser shots
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 1152; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,92 MB)
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65.
Operations of the Pierre Auger Observatory
R. Caruso, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The construction of the first stage of the Pierre Auger Observatory, designed for research of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, began in 2001 with a prototype system. The Observatory has been collecting data since early 2004 and was completed in 2008. The Observatory is situated at 1400 m above sea level near Malargüe, (Mendoza province) in western Argentina, covering a vast plain of 3000 squared km, known as the Pampa Amarillo. The Observatory consists of a hybrid detector, in which there are 1660 water-Cherenkov stations, forming the Surface Detector (SD) and 27 peripheral atmospheric fluorescence telescopes, comprising the Fluorescence Detector (FD). Over time, the Auger Observatory has been enhanced with different R&D prototypes and is recently being to an important upgrade called AugerPrime. In the present contribution, the general operations of the SD and FD will be described. In particular the FD shift procedure - executable locally in Malargüe or remotely by teams in control rooms abroad within the Collaboration - and the newly SD shifts (operating since 2019) will be explained. Additionally, the SD and FD maintenance campaigns, as well as the data taking and data handling at a basic level, will be reported
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, fluorescence detectors, surface detectors, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, detector operation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 1134; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,83 MB)
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66.
Update of the Offline Framework for AugerPrime
L. Nellen, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Work on the Offline Framework for the Pierre Auger Observatory was started in 2003 to create a universal framework for event reconstruction and simulation. The development and installation of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory require an update of the Offline Framework to handle the additional detector components and the upgraded Surface Detector Electronics. The design of the Offline Framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes needed to be able to handle the AugerPrime detector. This flexibility has been a goal since the development of the code started. The framework separates data structures from processing modules. The detector components map directly onto data structures. It was straightforward to update or add processing modules to handle the additional information from the new detectors. We will discuss the general structure of the Offline Framework, explaining the design decisions that provided its flexibility and point out the few of the features of the original design that required deeper changes, which could have been avoided in hindsight. Given the disruptive nature of the AugerPrime upgrade, the developers decided that the update for AugerPrime was the moment to change also the language standard for the implementation and move to the latest version of C++, to break strict backward compatibility eliminating deprecated interfaces, and to modernize the development infrastructure. We will discuss the changes that were made to the structure in general and the modules that were added to the framework to handle the new detector components.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, event reconstruction, simulation, software framework
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 1191; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,12 MB)
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67.
The upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory with the Scintillator Surface Detector.
G. Cataldi, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Since its full commissioning in 2008, the Pierre Auger Observatory has consistently demonstrated its scientific productivity. A major upgrade of the Surface Detector array (SD) improves the capabilities of measuring the different components of extensive air showers. One of the elements of the upgrade consists of new Scintillator Surface Detectors (SSD) placed on top of the Water-Cherenkov stations of the SD. At the Observatory, the integration of the SSD components and their deployment in the array is well advanced. In this paper, the main challenges and characteristics of the construction and installation will be reviewed. Started in 2016, an Engineering Array of twelve upgraded stations has been taking data in the field. In March 2019, a preproduction array of 77 SSDs started data acquisition with an adapted version of non-upgraded electronics. It is collecting events and proving the goodness of SSD design. Since December 2020, the upgraded electronics boards are being deployed in the field together with the photomultiplier tubes, increasing the number of SSD detectors, which are taking data continuosly with good stability. In this paper, the-long term performance of a subset of stations acquiring data for more than two years will be discussed. The data collected so far demonstrate the quality of the new detectors and the physics potential of the upgrade project
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, scintillator surface detectors, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 914; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,56 MB)
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68.
Expected performance of the AugerPrime Radio Detector
F. Schlüter, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The AugerPrime Radio Detector will significantly increase the sky coverage of mass-sensitive measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The detection of highly inclined air showers with the world’s largest 3000km^2 radio-antenna array in coincidence with the Auger water-Cherenkov detector provides a clean separation of the electromagnetic and muonic shower components. The combination of these highly complementary measurements yields a strong sensitivity to the mass composition of cosmic rays. We will present the first results of an end-to-end simulation study of the performance of the AugerPrime Radio Detector. The study features a complete description of the AugerPrime radio antennas and reconstruction of the properties of inclined air showers, in particular the electromagnetic energy. The performance is evaluated utilizing a comprehensive set of simulated air showers together with recorded background. The estimation of an energy- and direction-dependent aperture yields an estimation of the expected 10-year event statistics. The potential to measure the number of muons in air showers with the achieved statistics is outlined. Based on the achieved energy resolution, the potential to discriminate between different cosmic-ray primaries is presented.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, radio detection, radio antenna array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, air-shower muons, composition
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 927; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,85 MB)
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69.
First results from the AugerPrime Radio Detector
T. Fodran, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory investigates the properties of the highest-energy cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. The aim of the AugerPrime upgrade is to improve the sensitivity to the primary particle type. The improved mass sensitivity is the key to exploring the origin of the highest-energy particles in the Universe. The purpose of the Radio Detector (as part of AugerPrime) is to extend the sensitivity of the mass measurements to zenith angles in the range from 65° to 85°. A radio antenna, sensitive in two polarization directions and covering a bandwidth from 30 to 80 MHz, will be added to each of the 1661 surface detector stations over the full 3000 km^2 area, forming the world’s largest radio array for the detection of cosmic particles. Since November 2019, an engineering array comprised of ten stations has been installed in the field. The radio antennas are calibrated using the Galactic (diffuse) emission. The sidereal modulation of this signal is monitored continuously and is used to obtain an end-to-end calibration from the receiving antenna to the ADC in the read-out electronics. The calibration method and first results will be presented. The engineering array is also fully integrated in the data acquisition of the Observatory and records air showers regularly. The first air showers detected simultaneously with the water-Cherenkov detectors and the Radio Detectors will be presented. Simulations of the detected showers, based on the reconstructed quantities, have been conducted with CORSIKA/CoREAS. A comparison of the measured radio signals with those predicted by simulations exhibits satisfying agreement.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, indirect detection, radio detection, radio antenna array, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, galactic radio emission
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 924; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,62 MB)
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70.
The ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray sky above 32 EeV viewed from the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. Biteau, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The region of the toe in the cosmic-ray spectrum, located at about 45 EeV by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, is of primary interest in the search for the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The suppression of the flux with increasing energy can be explained by the interaction of UHECRs with intergalactic photons, resulting in a shrinking of the observable universe, and/or by cut-offs in acceleration potential at the astrophysical sources, yielding a high-rigidity sample of single (or few) UHECR species around the toe. The predominance of foreground sources combined with reduced deflections could thus offer a path towards localizing ultra-high energy accelerators, through the study of UHECR arrival directions. In this contribution, we present the results of blind and astrophysically-motivated searches for anisotropies with data collected above 32 EeV during the first phase of the Pierre Auger Observatory, i.e. prior to the AugerPrime upgrade, for an exposure of over 120,000 km^2 yr sr. We have conducted model-independent searches for overdensities at small and intermediate angular scales, correlation studies with several astrophysical structures, and cross-correlation analyses with catalogs of candidate extragalactic sources. These analyses provide the most important evidence to date for anisotropy in UHECR arrival directions around the toe as measured from a single observatory.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, overdensities, hotspot, source correlation, cross-correlation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 874; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,15 MB)
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