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1.
Comparing black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments : a new system using lab-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter
Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Matthias Oscity, Ernest Weingartner, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Konstantina Vasilatou, 2022, zaključena znanstvena zbirka raziskovalnih podatkov

Opis: A preprint of the publication can be found here: AMTD - Response of black carbon and aerosol absorption measuring instruments to laboratory-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter (copernicus.org) (doi.org/10.5194/amt-2021-214). The files correspond to the raw data sets used for Figures 3 and 4 of the aforementioned publication. The date and start/stop time of the measurements are listed in the file "overview_measurements".
Ključne besede: aerosol absorption coefficient, black carbon, absorption enhancement
Objavljeno v RUNG: 19.03.2024; Ogledov: 234; Prenosov: 2
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2.
Phenomenology of organic aerosols light absorption in Europe based on in situ surface observations
Jordi Rovira, Jesús Yus-Díez, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Both chamber and field experiments have shown that a fraction of organic aerosols (OA), called brown carbon (BrC), can efficiently absorb UV-VIS radiation with important effects on radiation balance. However, the optical properties of BrC, and its climate effects, remain poorly understood because a variety of chemical compositions are involved and their fractions vary with source and formation process. We present a phenomenology of OA light absorption in Europe using Aethalometer (AE) data. AE data were used to calculate the black carbon (BC) and BrC contribution to the total measured absorption in the UV-VIS spectral range (babs,BC(l), babsBrC(l)). Fig. 1 shows the BrC absorption at 370 nm and shows that the BrC absorption was on average higher in urban than in rural sites. Figure 1. Map of BrC absorption in rural and urban sites. At 18 out of 41 sites, simultaneous ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor) data were available allowing reporting the mass absorption cross-section (MAC), the imaginary refractive index (k), the k Angström Exponent (w) of OA particles and OA sources. We compared the experimental data the with Saleh’s classification, that groups BrC in four optical classes, namely very weakly (VW-BrC), weakly (W-BrC), moderately (M-BrC) and strongly (S-BrC) absorbing BrC. Preliminary results show that both MAC and k of POA sources were higher compared to SOA sources and that BBOA (biomass burning OA) followed by CCOA (coal combustion OA) and HOA (hydrocarbon-like OA) dominated the absorption by BrC.  Data reported indicate a relationship between w and k with higher w associated to less absorbing OA particles. With this work we provide a robust experimental framework that can be used to better constrain the climate effect of OA particles represented in climate models. In our results we found that most of the measured ambient OA particles present from W to M absorption properties. Variations in OA k and w depend on the relative contribution of POA compared to SOA as also reflected by the higher k observed in winter compared to summer. Our results also demonstrate a strong variation of OA optical properties in Europe thus further confirming the complexity of OA absorption properties. This work was supported by the FOCI Project (G.A. 101056783) and ARRS P1-0385. Action Cost COLOSSAL. We thank the COLOSSAL Team for providing OA sources and AE33 data. Chen et al (2022). Env. Int. 166, 107325. Nakao et al (2013). Atm. Env. 68, 273-277. Canagaratna et al (2015). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15, 253-272. Saleh et al (2020). Curr. Pollution Rep. 6, 90–104.
Ključne besede: black carbon, brown carbon, aerosol absorption coefficient
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 236; Prenosov: 2
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3.
Aerosol dust absorption : measurements with a reference instrument (PTAAM-2[lambda]) and impact on the climate as measured in airborne JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns
Jesús Yus-Díez, Luka Drinovec, Marija Bervida, Uroš Jagodič, Blaž Žibert, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Aerosol absorption coefficient measurements classically feature a very large uncertainty, especially given the absence of a reference method. The most used approach using filter-photometers is by measuring the attenuation of light through a filter where aerosols are being deposited. This presents several artifacts, with cross-sensitivity to scattering being most important at high single scattering albedo with the error exceeding 100%. We present lab campaign results where we have resuspended dust samples from different mid-latitude desert regions and measured the dust absorption and scattering coefficients, their mass concentration and the particle size distribution. The absorption coefficients were measured with two types of filter photometers: a Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer (AE33). The  dual-wavelength photo-thermal interferometer (PTAAM-2λ) was employed as the reference. Scattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The mass concentration was obtained after the weighting of filters before and after the sampling, and the particle size distribution (PSD) was measured by means of optical particle counters (Grimm 11-D).Measurements of the scattering with the nephelometer and absorption with the PTAAM-2λ we obtained the filter photometer multiple scattering parameter and cross-sensitivity to scattering as a function of the different sample properties. Moreover, by determining the mass concentration and the absorption coefficients of the samples, we derived the mass absorption cross-sections of the different dust samples, which can be linked to their size distribution as well as to their mineralogical composition.The focus of the JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands was on the calibration/validation of the ESA Aeolus satellite ALADIN lidar, however, the campaign also featured secondary scientific climate-change objectives. As part of this campaign, a light aircraft was set-up for in-situ aerosol measurements. Several flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to and above 3000 m above sea level during intense dust transport events. The aircraft was instrumented to determine the absorption coefficients using a pair of Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAPs) measuring in the fine and coarse fractions separately, with parallel measurements of size distributions in these size fractions using two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). In addition, we performed measurements of the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer.The combination of the absorption and PSD with source identification techniques enabled the separation of the contributions to  absorption by dust and black carbon. The atmospheric heating rate of these two contributions was determined by adding the irradiance measurements. Therefore, the integration of the results from the Using laboratory resuspension experiments  to interpret the airborne measurements is of great relevance for the determination  of the radiative effect of the Saharan Aerosol Layer as measured over the tropical Atlantic ocean.
Ključne besede: black carbon, mineral dust, Saharan dust, atmospheric heating rate, climate change, airborne measurements
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 235; Prenosov: 2
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4.
Recommendations for reporting equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations based on long-term pan-European in-situ observations
Marjan Savadkoohi, Marco Pandolfi, Olivier Favez, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Markus Fiebig, Philip Hopke, Paolo Laj, A. Wiedensohler, Griša Močnik, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A reliable determination of equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations derived from filter absorption photometers (FAPs) measurements depends on the appropriate quantification of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) for converting the absorption coefficient (babs) to eBC. This study investigates the spatial–temporal variability of the MAC obtained from simultaneous elemental carbon (EC) and babs measurements performed at 22 sites. We compared different methodologies for retrieving eBC integrating different options for calculating MAC including: locally derived, median value calculated from 22 sites, and site-specific rolling regression MAC. The eBC concentrations that underwent correction using these methods were identified as LeBC (local MAC), MeBC (median MAC), and ReBC (Rolling MAC) respectively. Pronounced differences (up to more than 50 %) were observed between eBC as directly provided by FAPs (NeBC; Nominal instrumental MAC) and ReBC due to the differences observed between the experimental and nominal MAC values. The median MAC was 7.8 ± 3.4 m2/g from 12 aethalometers at 880 nm, and 10.6 ± 4.7 m2/g from 10 MAAPs at 637 nm. The experimental MAC showed significant site and seasonal dependencies, with heterogeneous patterns between summer and winter in different regions. In addition, long-term trend analysis revealed statistically significant (s.s.) decreasing trends in EC. Interestingly, we showed that the corresponding corrected eBC trends are not independent of the way eBC is calculated due to the variability of MAC. NeBC and EC decreasing trends were consistent at sites with no significant trend in experimental MAC. Conversely, where MAC showed s.s. trend, the NeBC and EC trends were not consistent while ReBC concentration followed the same pattern as EC. These results underscore the importance of accounting for MAC variations when deriving eBC measurements from FAPs and emphasizes the necessity of incorporating EC observations to constrain the uncertainty associated with eBC.
Ključne besede: equivalent black carbon, mass absorption cross-section, filter absorption photometers, elemental carbon, absorption, site specific MAC, rolling MAC
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.03.2024; Ogledov: 242; Prenosov: 3
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5.
Contribution of black carbon and desert dust to aerosol absorption in the atmosphere of the Eastern Arabian Peninsula
Mohamed M. K. Mahfouz, Gregor Skok, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, M. R. Alfarra, Shamjad Moosakutty, Bálint Alföldy, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Asta Gregorič, Rok Podlipec, Griša Močnik, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Discriminating the absorption coefficients of aerosol mineral dust and black carbon (BC) in different aerosol size fractions is a challenge because of BC's large mass absorption cross-section compared to dust. Ambient aerosol wavelength dependent absorption coefficients in supermicron and submicron size fractions were determined with a high time resolution. The measurements were performed simultaneously using identical systems at an urban and a regional background site in Qatar. At each site, measurements were taken by co-located Aethalometers, one with a virtual impactor (VI) and the other with a PM1 cyclone to respectively collect super-micron-enhanced and submicron fractions. The combined measurement of aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients enabled the particles to be classified based on their optical properties' wavelength dependence. The classification reveals the presence of BC internally/externally mixed with different aerosols. Helium ion microscopy images provided information concerning the extent of mineral dust in the submicron fraction. The determination of absorption coefficients during dust storms and non-dust periods was used to establish the absorption Ångström exponent for dust and BC. Non-parametric wind regression, potential source contribution function and back-trajectory analysis reveal major regional sources of desert dust associated with north-westerly winds and a minor local dust contribution. In contrast, major BC sources found locally were associated with south-westerly winds with a smaller contribution made by offshore emissions transported by north-easterly and easterly winds. The use of a pair of Aethalometers with VI and PM1 inlets separates contributions of BC and dust to the aerosol absorption coefficient.
Ključne besede: aerosol absorption, black carbon, mineral dust, desert dust, Arabian Peninsula
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.02.2024; Ogledov: 299; Prenosov: 3
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6.
A device and a method for complete carbonaceous aerosol analysis in real time : European patent application EP4033242A1, 25. 8. 2021
Asta Gregorič, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, 2022, patentna prijava

Opis: The present invention belongs to the field of methods and devices for analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties by the use of thermos-optical means. The invention relates to a device and a method for complete carbonaceous aerosol analysis in real time, which is essentially a system combining two different instruments, wherein the first instrument measures total carbon (TC) using flash heating of collected aerosol samples and generation of CO2, while the second instrument performs an optical attenuation analysis at 7 wavelengths from near UV (370 nm) to near IR range (950 nm) in order to characterize a Black Carbon (BC/EC) aerosols accumulated on a glass-fiber/PTFE filter tape. The device, i.e., the system of said instruments, collects and processes collected data of both instruments, wherein said processing may be performed by any of the instruments or by a separate processing means, computer or computer application.
Ključne besede: carbonaceous aerosol, black carbon, total carbon, brown carbon
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.02.2024; Ogledov: 357; Prenosov: 5
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7.
Optical properties and simple forcing efficiency of the organic aerosols and black carbon emitted by residential wood burning in rural Central Europe
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Martin Rigler, Matej Ogrin, Baseerat Romshoo, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. Recent years have seen an increase in the use of wood for energy production of over 30 %, and this trend is expected to continue due to the current energy crisis and geopolitical instability. At present, residential wood burning (RWB) is one of the most important sources of organic aerosols (OA) and black carbon (BC). While BC is recognized for its large light absorption cross-section, the role of OA in light absorption is still under evaluation due to their heterogeneous composition and source-dependent optical properties. Studies that characterize wood-burning aerosol emissions in Europe typically focus on urban and background sites and only cover BC properties. However, RWB is more prevalent in rural areas, and the present scenario indicates that an improved understanding of the RWB aerosol optical properties and their subsequent connection to climate impacts is necessary for rural areas. We have characterized atmospheric aerosol particles from a central European rural site during wintertime in the village of Retje in Loški Potok, Slovenia, from 01.12.2017 to 07.03.2018. The village experienced extremely high aerosol concentrations produced by RWB and near-ground temperature inversion. The isolated location of the site and the substantial local emissions made it an ideal laboratory-like place for characterizing RWB aerosols with low influence from non-RWB sources under ambient conditions. The mean mass concentrations of OA and BC were 34.8 µg m-3 (max = 271.8 µg m-3) and 3.1 µg m-3 (max = 24.3 µg m-3), respectively. The mean total particle number concentration (10–600 nm) was 9.9 x 103 particles cm-3 (max = 53.5 x 103 particles cm-3). The mean total light absorption coefficient at 370 nm and 880 nm measured by an Aethalometer AE33 were 122.8 Mm-1 and 15.3 Mm-1 and had maximum values of 1103.9 Mm-1 and 179.1 Mm-1, respectively. The aerosol concentrations and absorption coefficients measured during the campaign in Loški Potok were significantly larger than those reported values for several urban areas in the region with larger populations and extent of aerosol sources. Here, considerable contributions from brown carbon (BrC) to the total light absorption were identified, reaching up to 60 % and 48 % in the near UV (370 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelengths. These contributions are up to three times higher than values reported for other sites impacted by wood-burning emissions. The calculated mass absorption cross-section and the absorption Ångström exponent for RWB OA were MACOA, 370 nm= 2.4 m2 g-1, and AAEBrC, 370–590 nm= 3.9, respectively. Simple forcing efficiency (SFE) calculations were performed as a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the climate impact of the RWB aerosols produced at the study site by integrating the optical properties measured during the campaign. The SFE results show a considerable forcing capacity from the local RWB aerosols, with a high sensitivity to OA absorption properties and a more substantial impact over bright surfaces like snow, typical during the coldest season with higher OA emissions from RWB. Our study's results are highly significant regarding air pollution, optical properties, and climate impact. The findings suggest that there may be an underestimation of RWB emissions in rural Europe and that further investigation is necessary.
Ključne besede: wood-burning aerosols, optical characterization, black carbon, rural areas
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.01.2024; Ogledov: 465; Prenosov: 6
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8.
Airborne in-situ measurements during JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns : first climate-relevant results
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marija Bervida, Luka Drinovec, Blaž Žibert, Matevž Lenarčič, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands have resulted in a large dataset of in-situ and remote measurements. In addition to the calibration/validation of the ESA’s Aeolus ALADIN during the campaign, the campaign also featured secondary scientific objectives related to climate change. The atmosphere above the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of West Africa is ideal for the study of the Saharan Aerosol layer (SAL), the long-range transport of dust, and the regional influence of SAL aerosols on the climate. We have instrumented a light aircraft (Advantic WT-10) with instrumentation for the in-situ aerosol characterization. Ten flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to over 3000 m above sea level during two intense dust transport events. PollyXT, and EvE lidars were deployed at the Ocean Science Center, measuring the vertical optical properties of aerosols and were also used to plan the flights. The particle light absorption coefficient was determined at three different wavelengths with Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP). They were calibrated with the dual wavelength photo-thermal interferometric measurement of the aerosol light-absorption coefficient in the laboratory. The particle size distributions above 0.3 µm diameter were measured with two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). These measurements were conducted separately for the fine aerosol fraction and the enriched coarse fraction using an isokinetic inlet and a pseudo-virtual impactor, respectively. The aerosol light scattering and backscattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The instrument used a separate isokinetic inlet and was calibrated prior to and its calibration validated after the campaign with CO2. We have measured the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer. CO2 concentration, temperature, aircraft GPS position altitude, air and ground speed were also measured. The in-situ single-scattering albedo Angstrom exponent and the lidar depolarization ratio will be compared as two independent parameters indicating the presence of Saharan dust. We will show differences between homogeneous Saharan dust layer in space (horizontally and vertically) and time and events featuring strong horizontal gradients in aerosol composition and concentration, and layering in the vertical direction. These layers often less than 100 m thick, separated by layers of air with no dust. Complex mixtures of aerosols in the outflow of Saharan dust over the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics will be characterized. We will show the in-situ atmospheric heating/cooling rate and provide insight into the regional and local effects of this heating of the dust layers. These measurements will support of the research on evolution, dynamics, and predictability of tropical weather systems and provide input into and verification of the climate models.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, climate change, heating rate, black carbon, Aeolus satellite, airborne measurements
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 505; Prenosov: 4
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9.
Anthropic settlementsʹ impact on the light-absorbing aerosol concentrations and heating rate in the arctic
Niccolò Losi, Piotr Markuszewski, Martin Rigler, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Violetta Drozdowska, Przemek Makuch, Tymon Zielinski, Paulina Pakszys, Małgorzata Kitowska, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) impact the atmosphere by heating it. Their effect in the Arctic was investigated during two summer Arctic oceanographic campaigns (2018 and 2019) around the Svalbard Archipelago in order to unravel the differences between the Arctic background and the local anthropic settlements. Therefore, the LAA heating rate (HR) was experimentally determined. Both the chemical composition and high-resolution measurements highlighted substantial differences between the Arctic Ocean background (average eBC concentration of 11.7 ± 0.1 ng/m3) and the human settlements, among which the most impacting appeared to be Tromsø and Isfjorden (mean eBC of 99.4 ± 3.1 ng/m3). Consequently, the HR in Isfjorden (8.2 × 10−3 ± 0.3 × 10−3 K/day) was one order of magnitude higher than in the pristine background conditions (0.8 × 10−3 ± 0.9 × 10−5 K/day). Therefore, we conclude that the direct climate impact of local LAA sources on the Arctic atmosphere is not negligible and may rise in the future due to ice retreat and enhanced marine traffic.
Ključne besede: light-absorbing aerosols, black carbon, climate change, heating rate
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 548; Prenosov: 5
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