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1.
Selenium affects mercury ligand environment in terrestrial food chain – a XAS study
Katarina Vogel Mikuš, Alojz Kodre, Iztok Arčon, Anja Kavčič, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Selenium (Se) supplied in inorganic form (as selenate or selenite) was shown to decrease mercury (Hg) toxicity by forming HgSe in soils as well as in animal and human tissues, while for plants there is no evidence of Hg-Se complexation. Although Se in not an essential element for plants it was shown to counteract various abiotic stresses when applied at trace amounts. The aim of this work was therefore to study physiological responses and Hg speciation in plant/ fungi-animal food chain. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis) were taken as model plant/ fungal species and Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris) as a model animal species. The plants, fed to the slugs, were grown in HgCl2 contaminated soil or soil from the vicinity of Hg mine in Idrija with traces of HgS and methyl Hg). Physiological parameters of plants and slugs were monitored during the experiment. At the end the biological material was frozen in LN2 and freeze dried. Hg L3-edge (12284 eV) XANES and EXAFS spectra of the biological samples and standards were measured at liquid helium temperature in fluorescence detection mode at the BM30B beamline of the ESRF synchrotron in Grenoble, using the 30-segment germanium solid state detector [1]. The results showed that addition of Se alleviated Hg toxic effects in the food chain started at HgCl2-contaminated soil, while for the soil from Idrija, containing low amounts of highly toxic methyl-Hg, the beneficial effect was less prominent [2]. No Hg-Se complexes were detected in plants, while in mushrooms and slugs the complexation was confirmed. Addition of Se to the plants, however, changed Hg ligand environment in plant tissues from sulphur to nitrogen ligands. Hg and Se both target the -SH functional groups in the plant tissues, so toxic effects of Hg are rather enhanced than alleviated by addition of Se. Nevertheless, the addition of Se to the plants is beneficial for higher trophic levels and lowers Hg toxicity for the primary consumers, the slugs.
Ključne besede: mercury, toxicity, ligand environment, XANES, EXAFS, food chain, plant, slug, fungi
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.12.2022; Ogledov: 1422; Prenosov: 0
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Development of an adaptable headspace sampling method for metabolic profiling of the fungal volatome
Waqar M Ahmed, Pavlos Geranios, Iain R. White, Oluwasola Lawal, Tamara M Nijsen, Michael J Bromley, Royston Goodacre, Nicholas D Read, Stephen J. Fowler, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Pulmonary aspergillosis can cause serious complications in people with a suppressed immune system. Volatile metabolites emitted by Aspergillus spp. have shown promise for early detection of pathogenicity. However, volatile profiles require further research, as effective headspace analysis methods are required for extended chemical coverage of the volatome; in terms of both very volatile and semi-volatile compounds. In this study, we describe a novel adaptable sampling method in which fungal headspace samples can be sampled continuously throughout a defined time period using both active (pumped) and passive (diffusive) methods, with the capability for samples to be stored for later off-line analysis. For this method we utilise thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to generate volatile metabolic profiles using Aspergillus fumigatus as the model organism. Several known fungal-specific volatiles associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis (including α-pinene, camphene, limonene, and several sesquiterpenes) were identified. A comparison between the wild-type A. fumigatus with a phosphopantetheinyl transferase null mutant strain (ΔpptA) that is compromised in secondary metabolite synthesis, revealed reduced production of sesquiterpenes. We also showed the lack of terpene compounds production during the early growth phase, whilst pyrazines were identified in both early and late growth phases. We have demonstrated that the fungal volatome is dynamic and it is therefore critically necessary to sample the headspace across several time periods using a combination of active and passive sampling techniques to analyse and understand this dynamism.
Ključne besede: Volatile Organic Compounds, Fungi, Mycelial growth
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 2975; Prenosov: 0
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4.
Yeasts as promising biological control agents (BCAs) against phytopathogenic fungi in viticulture
Melita Sternad Lemut, Adesida Rowland, Lorena Butinar, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Ključne besede: yeasts, biocontrol, phytopathogenic fungi, biological control agents, B. cinerea
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.03.2017; Ogledov: 4811; Prenosov: 1
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