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Summertime particulate matter and its composition in Greece
M. A. Tsiflikiotou, E. Kostenidou, D. K. Papanastasiou, D. Patoulias, Pavlos Zarmpas, D. Paraskevopoulou, E. Diapouli, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Kalliopi Florou, Iasonas Stavroulas, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: During the summer of 2012 a coordinated field campaign was conducted in multiple locations in Greece in order to characterize the ambient particulate matter (PM) levels, its chemical composition and the contribution of the regional and local sources. PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected simultaneously at seven different sites in Greece: an urban and a suburban station in Patras, a suburban station in Thessaloniki, a suburban and an urban background station in Athens, a rural background station at the Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO) in southwestern Peloponnese and a remote background site at Finokalia in the northeastern part of Crete. The sites were selected to facilitate the estimation of the contribution of the local emission sources and long range transport. Sulfate and organics were the major PM1 components in all sites suggesting that high sulfate levels still remain in parts of Europe. The photochemistry of the Eastern Mediterranean can convert rapidly the emitted sulphur dioxide to sulfate. Our analysis indicated significant sulfate production over the area, with high sulfate levels, especially in the remote site of Finokalia, associated with air masses that had passed over Turkey. There was high regional secondary organic aerosol production dominating organic aerosol levels even in a major city like Athens. High organic aerosol levels were associated with air masses that had crossed the Balkans with a significant biogenic component. The average PM2.5 concentration ranged from 13 to 18 μg m−3 in the different sites. There were unexpected significant gradients in the concentrations of secondary aerosol components in length scales of a few hundred kilometers. The low concentrations of measured PM2.5 nitrate are mostly organic nitrates and supermicrometer nitrate associated with sea-salt and dust. Dust was a significant PM10 constituent in all areas and was quite variable in space showing the importance of the local sources.
Ključne besede: PM2.5, sulfate aerosol, secondary inorganic aerosol, secondary organic aerosol, Greece
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.05.2024; Ogledov: 263; Prenosov: 0
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Carbonaceous aerosols in contrasting atmospheric environments in Greek cities : evaluation of the EC-tracer methods for secondary organic carbon estimation
Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Georgios Grivas, Christina Theodosi, M. Tsagkaraki, D. Paraskevopoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Eleni Liakakou, Antonis Gkikas, Nikolaos Hatzianastassiou, Cheng Wu, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study examines the carbonaceous-aerosol characteristics at three contrasting urban environments in Greece (Ioannina, Athens, and Heraklion), on the basis of 12 h sampling during winter (January to February 2013), aiming to explore the inter-site differences in atmospheric composition and carbonaceous-aerosol characteristics and sources. The winter-average organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in Ioannina were found to be 28.50 and 4.33 µg m−3, respectively, much higher than those in Heraklion (3.86 µg m−3 for OC and 2.29 µg m−3 for EC) and Athens (7.63 µg m−3 for OC and 2.44 µg m−3 for EC). The winter OC/EC ratio in Ioannina (6.53) was found to be almost three times that in Heraklion (2.03), indicating a larger impact of wood combustion, especially during the night, whereas in Heraklion, emissions from biomass burning were found to be less intense. Estimations of primary and secondary organic carbon (POC and SOC) using the EC-tracer method, and specifically its minimum R-squared (MRS) variant, revealed large differences between the sites, with a prevalence of POC (67–80%) in Ioannina and Athens and with a larger SOC fraction (53%) in Heraklion. SOC estimates were also obtained using the 5% and 25% percentiles of the OC/EC data to determine the (OC/EC)pri, leading to results contrasting to the MRS approach in Ioannina (70–74% for SOC). Although the MRS method provides generally more robust results, it may significantly underestimate SOC levels in environments highly burdened by biomass burning, as the fast-oxidized semi-volatile OC associated with combustion sources is classified in POC. Further analysis in Athens revealed that the difference in SOC estimates between the 5% percentile and MRS methods coincided with the semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol as quantified by aerosol mass spectrometry. Finally, the OC/Kbb+ ratio was used as tracer for decomposition of the POC into fossil-fuel and biomass-burning components, indicating the prevalence of biomass-burning POC, especially in Ioannina (77%).
Ključne besede: carbonaceous aerosols, inorganic species, POC-SOC estimation, biomass burning, MRS method, Greece
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 217; Prenosov: 3
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Assessment of the COVID-19 lockdown effects on spectral aerosol scattering and absorption properties in Athens, Greece
Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Georgios Grivas, Eleni Liakakou, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Pavlos Zarmpas, Umesh Chandra Dumka, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: COVID-19 is evolving into one of the worst pandemics in recent history, claiming a death toll of over 1.5 million as of December 2020. In an attempt to limit the expansion of the pandemic in its initial phase, nearly all countries imposed restriction measures, which resulted in an unprecedented reduction of air pollution. This study aims to assess the impact of the lockdown effects due to COVID-19 on in situ measured aerosol properties, namely spectral-scattering (bsca) and absorption (babs) coefficients, black carbon (BC) concentrations, single-scattering albedo (SSA), scattering and absorption Ångström exponents (SAE, AAE) in Athens, Greece. Moreover, a comparison is performed with the regional background site of Finokalia, Crete, for a better assessment of the urban impact on observed differences. The study examines pre-lockdown (1–22 March 2020), lockdown (23 March–3 May 2020) and post-lockdown (4–31 May 2020) periods, while the aerosol properties are also compared with a 3–4 year preceding period (2016/2017–2019). Comparison of meteorological parameters in Athens, between the lockdown period and respective days in previous years, showed only marginal variation, which is not deemed sufficient in order to justify the notable changes in aerosol concentrations and optical properties. The largest reduction during the lockdown period was observed for babs compared to the pre-lockdown (−39%) and to the same period in previous years (−36%). This was intensified during the morning traffic hours (−60%), reflecting the large decrease in vehicular emissions. Furthermore, AAE increased during the lockdown period due to reduced emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, while a smaller (−21%) decrease was observed for bsca along with slight increases (6%) in SAE and SSA values, indicating that scattering aerosol properties were less affected by the decrease in vehicular emissions, as they are more dependent on regional sources and atmospheric processing. Nighttime BC emissions related to residential wood-burning were slightly increased during the lockdown period, with respect to previous-year means. On the contrary, aerosol and pollution changes during the lockdown period at Finokalia were low and highly sensitive to natural sources and processes.
Ključne besede: COVID-19, traffic, aerosol scattering, absorption, SSA, Greece
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 199; Prenosov: 3
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Impacts of severe residential wood burning on atmospheric processing, water-soluble organic aerosol and light absorption, in an inland city of Southeastern Europe
Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Georgios Grivas, K. Oikonomou, P. Tavernaraki, Kyriaki Papoutsidaki, M. Tsagkaraki, Iasonas Stavroulas, Pavlos Zarmpas, D. Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study examines the concentrations and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols (including saccharides) and inorganic species measured by PM2.5 filter sampling and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer during two campaigns in a mountainous, medium-sized, Greek city (Ioannina). The first campaign was conducted in summer and used as a baseline of low concentrations, while the second took place in winter under intensive residential wood burning (RWB) emissions. Very high winter-mean OC concentrations (26.0 μg m−3) were observed, associated with an OC/EC ratio of 9.9, and mean BCwb and PM2.5 levels of 4.5 μg m−3 and 57.5 μg m−3, respectively. Simultaneously, record-high levoglucosan (Lev) concentrations (mean: 6.0 μg m−3; max: 15.9 μg m−3) were measured, revealing a severely biomass burning (BB)-laden environment. The water-soluble OC component (WSOC) accounted for 56 ± 9% of OC in winter, exhibiting high correlations (R2 = 0.93–0.97) with BB tracers (nss-K+, BCwb, Lev), nitrate and light absorption, potentially indicating the formation of water-soluble brown carbon (BrC) from fast oxidation processes. The examination of diagnostic ratios involving BB tracers indicated the prevalence of hardwood burning, while the mean Lev/OC ratio (22%) was remarkably higher than literature values. Applying a mono-tracer method based on levoglucosan, we estimated very high BB contributions to OC (∼92%), EC (∼64%) and WSOC (∼87%) during winter. On the contrary, low levels were registered during summer for all carbonaceous components, with winter/summer ratios of 4–5 for PM2.5 and BC, 10 for OC, 30 for BCwb and ∼1100 for levoglucosan. The absence of local BB sources in summer, combined with the photochemical processing and aging of regional organic aerosols, resulted in higher WSOC/OC fractions (64 ± 13%). The results indicate highly soluble fine carbonaceous aerosol fraction year-round, which when considered alongside the extreme concentration levels in winter can have important implications for short- and long-term health effects.
Ključne besede: carbonaceous aerosols, biomass burning, levoglucosan, WSOC, heterogeneous chemistry, Greece
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 235; Prenosov: 2
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Development and evaluation of an improved offline aerosol mass spectrometry technique
Christina Vasilakopoulou, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Spyros N. Pandis, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. The offline aerosol mass spectrometry technique is a useful tool for the source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) in areas and periods during which an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is not available. However, the technique is based on the extraction of aerosol samples in water, while several atmospheric OA components are partially or fully insoluble in water. In this work an improved offline technique was developed and evaluated in an effort to capture most of the partially soluble and insoluble organic aerosol material, reducing significantly the uncertainty of the corresponding source apportionment. A major advantage of the proposed approach is that no corrections are needed for the offline analysis to account for the limited water solubility of some OA components. The improved offline AMS analysis was tested in three campaigns: two during winter and one during summer. Collocated online AMS measurements were performed for the evaluation of the offline method. Source apportionment analysis was performed separately for the online and the offline measurements using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The PMF results showed that the fractional contribution of each factor to the total OA differed between the online and the offline PMF results by less than 15 %. The differences in the AMS spectra of the factors of the two approaches could be significant, suggesting that the use of factor profiles from the literature in the offline analysis may lead to complications. Part of the good agreement between the online and the offline PMF results is due to the ability of the improved offline AMS technique to capture a bigger part of the OA, including insoluble organic material. This was evident by the significant fraction of submicrometer suspended insoluble particles present in the water extract and by the reduced insoluble material on the filters after the extraction process. More than half of the elemental carbon (EC) was on average missing from the filters after the water extraction. Significant EC concentrations were measured in the produced aerosol that was used as input to the AMS during the offline analysis.
Ključne besede: organic aerosol, receptor modeling, offline PMF, Greece
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 224; Prenosov: 2
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