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An Overview of the ASKOS Campaign in Cabo Verde
Eleni Marinou, Jesús Yus-Díez, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In the framework of the ESA-NASA Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign (JATAC), the ASKOS experiment was implemented during the summer and autumn of 2021 and 2022. ASKOS comprised roughly 9 weeks of measurements in the Saharan dust outflow towards the North Atlantic, with operations conducted from the Cabo Verde Islands. Through its unprecedented dataset of synergistic measurements in the region, ASKOS will allow for the calibration and validation of the aerosol/cloud product from Aeolus and the preparation of the terrain for EarthCARE cal/val activities. Moreover, ASKOS marks a turning point in our ability to study Saharan dust properties and the processes affecting its atmospheric transport, as well as the link to other components of the Earth’s system, such as the effect of dust particles on cloud formation over the Eastern Atlantic and the effect of large and giant particles on radiation. This is possible through the synergy of diverse observations acquired during the experiment, which include intense 24/7 ground-based aerosol, cloud, wind, and radiation remote sensing measurements, and UAV-based aerosol in situ measurements within the Saharan air layer, up to 5.3 km altitude, offering particle size-distributions up to 40 μm as well as sample collection for mineralogical analysis. We provide an outline of the novel measurements along with the main scientific objectives of ASKOS. The campaign data will be publicly available by September of 2023 through the EVDC portal (ESA Validation Data Center).
Ključne besede: experimental campaign, remote sensing, lidar, radar, radiosondes, radiation, desert dust, in-situ, aerosol, optical properties, scattering, absorption, ASKOS
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.09.2023; Ogledov: 44; Prenosov: 0
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Monitoring chemical processes in (photo)catalysts and energy storage materials by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Iztok Arčon, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Opis: X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful tool for characterisation of local structure and chemical state of selected elements in different new functional materials and biological or environmental samples. The XAS spectroscopy is based on extremely bright synchrotron radiation X-rays sources, which allow precise characterisation of bulk, nanostructured or highly diluted samples. The rapid development of extremely bright synchrotron sources of X-ray and ultraviolet light in recent years has opened new possibilities for research of matter at the atomic or molecular level, indispensable in the development of new functional nanostructured materials with desired properties. The talk will present the possibilities offered by X-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron light for ex-situ or operando characterization of various functional porous and other nanomaterials, before, after and during their operation [1,2,3,4]. New generation of synchrotron light sources also opened the possibility of combining X-ray absorption with high-resolution emission [5] and inelastic scattering spectroscopy [6], and microscopy with sub-micron resolution [7]. Examples of operando XANES and EXAFS analysis to track changes in the valence states and local structures of selected elements in different energy storage materials and in various (photo)catalysts, during chemical reactions under controlled reaction conditions, will be presented, which provided insight into the dynamic functional properties and reaction mechanisms of these materials. Access to SR facilities of Petra III (beamlines P65, P64 and P01), ESRF (beamlines BM23, ID21, ID26) and Elettra (beamlines XAFS, XRF), for the presented research is kindly acknowledged.
Ključne besede: X-ray absorption spectroscopy, operando XANES, EXAFS, catalysts, batteries
Objavljeno v RUNG: 07.10.2022; Ogledov: 578; Prenosov: 0
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Measuring the Aerosol Light Absorption Coefficient - a Not-So-Easy Task With Relevance for the Global and Regional Climate
Griša Močnik, 2022, vabljeno predavanje na konferenci brez natisa

Opis: The photothermal interferometer measurement of aerosol absorption, using pump lasers (532, 1064 nm) and phase sensitive detection results in 4 and 6% measurement uncertainty. It is calibrated traceably to primary standards and thereby a potential reference.
Ključne besede: aerosol absorption, black carbon, climate change
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.07.2022; Ogledov: 850; Prenosov: 0
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Measuring aerosol absorption directly - PTI methods to the rescue
Griša Močnik, vabljeno predavanje na konferenci brez natisa

Ključne besede: aerosol absorption, black carbon, climate change
Objavljeno v RUNG: 19.07.2022; Ogledov: 787; Prenosov: 0
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A dual-wavelength photothermal aerosol absorption monitor : design, calibration and performance
Luka Drinovec, Uroš Jagodič, Luka Pirker, Miha Škarabot, Mario Kurtjak, Kristijan Vidović, Luca Ferrero, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Ernest Weingartner, Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Konstantina Vasilatou, Griša Močnik, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: There exists a lack of aerosol absorption measurement techniques with low uncertainties and without artefacts. We have developed the two-wavelength Photothermal Aerosol Absorption Monitor (PTAAM-2λ), which measures the aerosol absorption coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm. Here we describe its design, calibration and mode of operation and evaluate its applicability, limits and uncertainties. The 532 nm channel was calibrated with ∼ 1 µmol mol−1 NO2, whereas the 1064 nm channel was calibrated using measured size distribution spectra of nigrosin particles and a Mie calculation. Since the aerosolized nigrosin used for calibration was dry, we determined the imaginary part of the refractive index of nigrosin from the absorbance measurements on solid thin film samples. The obtained refractive index differed considerably from the one determined using aqueous nigrosin solution. PTAAM-2λ has no scattering artefact and features very low uncertainties: 4 % and 6 % for the absorption coefficient at 532 and 1064 nm, respectively, and 9 % for the absorption Ångström exponent. The artefact-free nature of the measurement method allowed us to investigate the artefacts of filter photometers. Both the Aethalometer AE33 and CLAP suffer from cross-sensitivity to scattering – this scattering artefact is most pronounced for particles smaller than 70 nm. We observed a strong dependence of the filter multiple scattering parameter on the particle size in the 100–500 nm range. The results from the winter ambient campaign in Ljubljana showed similar multiple scattering parameter values for ambient aerosols and laboratory experiments. The spectral dependence of this parameter resulted in AE33 reporting the absorption Ångström exponent for different soot samples with values biased 0.23–0.35 higher than the PTAAM-2λ measurement. Photothermal interferometry is a promising method for reference aerosol absorption measurements.
Ključne besede: aerosol absorption, calibration, black carbon
Objavljeno v RUNG: 28.06.2022; Ogledov: 731; Prenosov: 24
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Comparing black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments – a new system using lab-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter
Daniel M. Kalbermatter, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Bradley Visser, Jannis Röhrbein, Matthias Oscity, Ernest Weingartner, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Konstantina Vasilatou, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We report on an inter-comparison of black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments with laboratory-generated soot particles coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter (SOM). The aerosol generation setup consisted of a miniCAST 5201 Type BC burner for the generation of soot particles and a new automated oxidation flow reactor based on the micro smog chamber (MSC) for the generation of SOM from the ozonolysis of α-pinene. A series of test aerosols was generated with elemental to total carbon (EC  TC) mass fraction ranging from about 90 % down to 10 % and single-scattering albedo (SSA at 637 nm) from almost 0 to about 0.7. A dual-spot Aethalometer AE33, a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, 870 nm), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), a prototype photoacoustic instrument, and two prototype photo-thermal interferometers (PTAAM-2λ and MSPTI) were exposed to the test aerosols in parallel. Significant deviations in the response of the instruments were observed depending on the amount of secondary organic coating. We believe that the setup and methodology described in this study can easily be standardised and provide a straightforward and reproducible procedure for the inter-comparison and characterisation of both filter-based and in situ black-carbon-measuring (BC-measuring) instruments based on realistic test aerosols.
Ključne besede: black carbon, aerosol absorption, secondary organic aerosol, coating
Objavljeno v RUNG: 01.02.2022; Ogledov: 1138; Prenosov: 43
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Structure and population of complex ionic species in FeCl[sub]2 aqueous solution by X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Uroš Luin, Iztok Arčon, Matjaž Valant, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Technologies for mass production require cheap and abundant materials such as ferrous chloride (FeCl2). The literature survey shows the lack of experimental studies to validate theoretical conclusions related to the population of ionic Fe-species in the aqueous FeCl2 solution. Here, we present an in situ X-ray absorption study of the structure of the ionic species in the FeCl2 aqueous solution at different concentrations (1–4 molL−1) and temperatures (25–80 ◦C). We found that at low temperature and low FeCl2 concentration, the octahedral first coordination sphere around Fe is occupied by one Cl ion at a distance of 2.33 (±0.02) Å and five water molecules at a distance of 2.095 (±0.005) Å. The structure of the ionic complex gradually changes with an increase in temperature and/or concentration. The apical water molecule is substituted by a chlorine ion to yield a neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0. The observed substitutional mechanism is facilitated by the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds as well as entropic reasons. The transition from the single charged Fe[Cl(H2O)5]+ to the neutral Fe[Cl2(H2O)4]0 causes a significant drop in the solution conductivity, which well correlates with the existing conductivity models.
Ključne besede: structure, population, ionic species, aqueous ferrous chloride, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Objavljeno v RUNG: 24.01.2022; Ogledov: 1236; Prenosov: 41  (1 glas)
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