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1.
Wavelength-resolved reverberation mapping of quasar CTS C30.10: Dissecting Mg II and Fe II emission regions
Raj Prince, Michal Zajaček, Bożena Czerny, Piotr Trzcionkowski, Mateusz Bronikowski, Catalina Sobrino Figaredo, Swayamtrupta Panda, Mary Loli Martinez-Aldama, Krzysztof Hryniewicz, Vikram Kumar Jaiswal, Marzena Śniegowska, Mohammad-Hassan Naddaf, Maciej Bilicki, Martin Haas, Marek Jacek Sarna, Vladimir Karas, Aleksandra Olejak, Robert Przyłuski, Mateusz Rałowski, Andrzej Udalski, Ramotholo R. Sefako, Anja Genade, Hannah L. Worters, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Context. We present the results of the reverberation monitoring of the Mg II broad line and Fe II pseudocontinuum for the luminous quasar CTS C30.10 (z = 0.90052) with the Southern African Large Telescope in 2012–2021. Aims. We aimed at disentangling the Mg II and UV Fe II variability and the first measurement of UV Fe II time delay for a distant quasar. Methods. We used several methods for the time-delay measurements and determined the Fe II and Mg II time delays. We also performed a wavelength-resolved time delay study for a combination of Mg II and Fe II in the 2700–2900 Å rest-frame wavelength range. Results. We obtain a time delay for Mg II of 275.5−19.5+12.4 days in the rest frame, and we have two possible solutions of 270.0−25.3+13.8 days and 180.3−30.0+26.6 in the rest frame for Fe II. Combining this result with the old measurement of Fe II UV time delay for NGC 5548, we discuss for first time the radius-luminosity relation for UV Fe II with the slope consistent with 0.5 within the uncertainties. Conclusions. Because the Fe II time delay has a shorter time-delay component but the lines are narrower than Mg II, we propose that the line-delay measurement is biased toward the part of the broad line region (BLR) facing the observer. The bulk of the Fe II emission may arise from the more distant BLR region, however, the region that is shielded from the observer.
Ključne besede: accretion, accretion disks / quasars: emission lines / quasars: individual: CTS C30.10 / techniques: spectroscopic / techniques: photometric
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.11.2023; Ogledov: 747; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,50 MB)
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2.
Wavelength-resolved reverberation mapping of intermediate-redshift quasars HE 0413-4031 and HE 0435-4312 : dissecting Mg II, optical Fe II, and UV Fe II emission regions
Raj Prince, Michal Zajaček, Swayamtrupta Panda, Krzysztof Hryniewicz, Vikram Kumar Jaiswal, Bożena Czerny, Piotr Trzcionkowski, Mateusz Bronikowski, Mateusz Rałowski, Catalina Sobrino Figaredo, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Context. We present the wavelength-resolved reverberation mapping (RM) of combined Mg II and UV Fe II broad-line emissions for two intermediate-redshift (z ∼ 1), luminous quasars, HE 0413-4031 and HE 0435-4312, monitored by the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and 1m class telescopes between 2012 and 2022. Aims. Using a wavelength-resolved technique, we aim to disentangle the Mg II and Fe II emission regions and to build a radius–luminosity (R–L) relation for UV Fe II emission, which has so far remained unconstrained. Methods. We applied several time-delay methodologies to constrain the time delays for total Mg II and Fe II emissions. In addition, wavelength-resolved RM is performed to quantify the inflow or outflow of broad-line region (BLR) gas around the supermassive black hole and to disentangle the emission and the emitting regions based on lines produced in proximity to each other. Results. The mean total FeII time delay is nearly equal to the mean total MgII time delay for HE 0435-4312, suggesting the co-spatiality of their emission regions. However, in HE 0413-4031, the mean FeII time delay is found to be longer than the mean MgII time delay, suggesting that FeII emission is produced at greater distances from the black hole. The UV FeII R–L relation is updated with these two quasars (now four in total) and compared with the optical FeII relation (20 sources), which suggests that the optical FeII emission region is located further than the UV FeII region by a factor of 1.7–1.9, that is, RFeII-opt ∼ (1.7 − 1.9)RFeII-UV. Conclusion. Wavelength-resolved reverberation is an efficient way to constrain the geometry and structure of the BLR. We detected a weak pattern in the time delay versus wavelength relation, suggesting that the MgII broad line originates from a region slightly closer to the SMBH than the UV FeII pseudo continuum, although the difference is not very significant. Comparison of MgII, UV, and optical FeII R–L relations suggests that the difference may be greater for lower-luminosity sources, possibly with the MgII emission originating further from the SMBH. In the future, more RM data will be acquired, allowing better constraints on these trends, in particular the UV FeII R–L relation.
Ključne besede: accretion, accretion disks, emission lines, photometric, spectroscopic
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.11.2023; Ogledov: 777; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,92 MB)
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Tidal Disruption Events seen through the eyes of Vera C. Rubin Observatory
Katja Bučar Bricman, 2021, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are rare transients, which are considered to be promising tools in probing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their environments in quiescent galaxies, accretion physics, and jet formation mechanisms. The majority of $\approx$ 60 detected TDEs has been discovered with large field of view time-domain surveys in the last two decades. Currently, about 10 TDEs are discovered per year, and we expect this number will increase largely once the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) at Vera C. Rubin Observatory begins its observations. In this work we demonstrate and explore the capabilities of the LSST to study TDEs. To begin with, we simulate LSST observations of TDEs over $10$ years of survey duration by including realistic SED models from MOSFiT into the simulation framework of the LSST. SEDs are then converted into observed fluxes and light curves are simulated with the LSST observing strategy minion_1016. Simulated observations are used to estimate the number of TDEs the LSST is expected to observe and to assess the possibility of probing the SMBH mass distribution in the Universe with the observed TDE sample. We find that the LSST has a potential of observing ~1000 TDEs per year, the exact number depending on the SMBH mass distribution and the adopted observing strategy. In spite of this large number, we find that probing the SMBH mass distribution with LSST observed TDEs will not be straightforward, especially at the low-mass end. This is largely attributed to the fact that TDEs caused by low-mass black holes ($\le 10^6 M_\odot$) are less luminous and shorter than TDEs by heavier SMBHs ($> 10^6 M_\odot$), and the probability of observationally missing them with LSST is higher. Second, we built a MAF TDE metric for photometric identification of TDEs based on LSST data. We use the metric to evaluate the performance of different proposed survey strategies in identifying TDEs with pre-defined identification requirements. Since TDEs are blue in color for months after peak light, which separates them well from SNe and AGN, we include u-band observations as one of the criteria for a positive identification. We find that the number of identified TDEs strongly depends of the observing strategy and the number of u-band visits to a given field in the sky. Observing strategies with a larger number of u-band observations perform significantly better. For these strategies up to 10% of LSST observed TDEs satisfy the identification requirements.
Ključne besede: Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes Astronomical catalogs, atlases, sky surveys, databases, retrieval systems, archives, Black holes, Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges, Infall, accretion, and accretion disks
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 2782; Prenosov: 62
.pdf Celotno besedilo (124,61 MB)

5.
A study of stellar debris dynamics during a tidal disruption event
Aurora Clerici, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: The number of observed tidal disruption events is increasing rapidly with the advent of new surveys. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to improve TDE models using different stellar and orbital parameters. We study the dynamical behaviour of tidal disruption events produced by a massive black hole like Sgr A* by changing different initial orbital parameters, taking into account the observed orbits of S stars. Investigating different types of orbits and penetration factors is important since their variations lead to different timescales of the tidal disruption event debris dynamics, making mechanisms such as self-crossing and pancaking act strongly or weakly, thus affecting the circularisation and accretion disk formation. We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Each simulation consists in modelling the star with $10^5$ particles, and the density profile is described by a polytrope with $\gamma$ = 5/3. The massive black hole is modelled with a generalised post-Newtonian potential, which takes into account relativistic effects of the Schwarzschild space-time. Our analyses find that mass return rate distributions of solar-like stars and S-like stars with same eccentricity have similar durations, but S-like stars have higher mass return rate, as expected due to their larger mass. Regarding debris circularisation, we identify four types of evolution, related to the mechanisms and processes involved during circularisation: in type 1 the debris does not circularise efficiently, hence a disk is not formed or is formed after relatively long time; in type 2 the debris slowly circularises and eventually forms a disk with no debris falling back; in type 3 the debris relatively quickly circularises and forms a disk while there is still debris falling back; finally, in type 4 the debris quickly and efficiently circularises, mainly through self-crossings and shocks, and forms a disk with no debris falling back. Finally, we find that the standard relation of circularisation radius $r_{\rm circ} = 2r_{\rm t}$ holds only for $\beta = 1$ and eccentricities close to parabolic.
Ključne besede: 07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation, 95.30.Lz Hydrodynamics, 98.35.Jk Galactic center, bar, circumnuclear matter, and bulge, 98.62.Js Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges, 98.62.Mw Infall, accretion, and accretion disks
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2020; Ogledov: 3687; Prenosov: 78
.pdf Celotno besedilo (37,55 MB)

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