Bodies of noise at the Bell Laboratories : early automated speech recognition, contribution at the Editorial Workshop - A Special Issue on Acoustic Space, November 9-10, 2022, Frankfurt/MainEszter Polónyi
, 2022, druga izvedena dela
Opis: This paper is about the first automated systems developed to recognize identity. While automated recognition in the twenty-first century is widely associated with images of the human face, its roots are to be found in attempts to visualize identity in other, non-figural types of trace left by human bodies, ranging as widely as shadows, astrological signs, handwriting, the prints left by palms and fingers and the acoustics of the human voice. This paper investigates one such system of recognition as it emerged from within the telecommunications industry context in the midcentury U.S. Ostensibly built to reduce human labor and cable bandwidth, Bell Labs developed three different phone devices in the 1950s to photograph, formalize and analyze the sounds of speech as they traveled through the telephony system. And while the device called “Audrey” indeed succeeded in recognizing spoken digits, it was its failure to recognize the speech contents without prior awareness of the identity of the speaker, that is to distinguish between the individuality of the speaking “medium” and their intended meaning, that arguably made the experiment a landmark in the history of machine-driven recognition. Accounting for the “noise” made by the body and the environment from which sound emanated into the device, which the lab’s technicians defined as ranging from “speech defects” to “inflection” and “background interference” proved more important than phonetic analysis in determining the intended message of given speech spectogram. Similarly to a range of experiments with noise by formalist filmmakers such as Tony Conrad, John Cage, Kurt Kren and others, it was on the principle of contingency and irreproducible uniqueness that Bell Lab technicians sought to train machine-driven intelligence.
Ključne besede: History of computer science, machine learning, Bell Labs, history of telecommunications, sound studies
Objavljeno v RUNG: 19.02.2024; Ogledov: 187; Prenosov: 3
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Cherenkov Telescope Array Science : a multi-wavelength and multi-messenger perspectiveUlisses Barres de Almeida
, Christopher Eckner
, Gašper Kukec Mezek
, Samo Stanič
, Serguei Vorobiov
, Lili Yang
, Gabrijela Zaharijas
, Danilo Zavrtanik
, Marko Zavrtanik
, Lukas Zehrer
, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci
Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the major global observatory for
VHE gamma-ray astronomy over the next decade and beyond. It will be an explorer
of the extreme universe, with a broad scientific potential: from understanding the role of relativistic cosmic particles, to the search for dark matter. Covering photon energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, and with an angular resolution unique in the field, of about 1 arc min, CTA will improve on all aspects of the performance with respect to current instruments, surveying the high energy sky hundreds of times faster than previous TeV telescopes,
and with a much deeper view. The very large collection area of CTA makes it an important probe of transient phenomena. The first CTA telescope has just been inaugurated in the Canary Islands, Spain, and as more telescopes are added in the coming years, scientific operation will start. It is evident that CTA will have important synergies with many of the
new generation astronomical and astroparticle observatories. In this talk we will review
the CTA science case from the point of view of its synergies with other instruments and
facilities, highlighting the CTA needs in terms of external data, as well as the opportunities and strategies for cooperation to achieve the basic CTA science goals.
Ključne besede: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA performances, transient VHE sources, CTA science
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.12.2023; Ogledov: 424; Prenosov: 4
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Investigative Arts as Grassroots Empowerment to Environmental Research: the Cases of Taming the Forest and xMobilPeter Purg
, 2023, prispevek na konferenci brez natisa
Opis: In the current state of multiple and repeating planetary-scale crises, ranging from climate disasters to resource mismanagement, the complexity of problems often takes humanity into exploring unknown unknowns. Through a gradual consolidation of networks and platforms across realms of education, economy and both NGO as well as public cultural institutions, it is especially the media-artistic practice (and discourse!) of the investigative kind that trailblazes possible itineraries and develops (at least speculative) toolbelts for venturing into any kind of livable future, possibly such that might surpass the aporia of the anthropocene and find a new way of making (up to) kin.
The selected project cases depict two possible strategic approaches lending well to grassroots initiatives, even if both are embedded within either wide-ranging multi-million supported (structural) platform endeavors, or trans-national programmes such as the European Capital of Culture.
An ongoing collaborative process between art and science, Taming the Forest (2022-) is being implemented by a group of students, artists and researchers charting an interdisciplinary cross-field among bioeconomy, cultural history, policy, and art(ivism). Researching the conflicting narratives of history and economy about biodiversity in general, and specifically on forests, the project brought about several public formats such as lectures, video installations and AV performances. The project-as-process shows how different blends of methodologies in artistic-cum-scientific research can become truly relevant for both of their respective realms, opening new creative pathways and pedagogical registers, while repeatedly returning to the local (forest). Moreover, Taming the Forest manifests the need for a new sensibility and complex knowledge, moving beyond the objective study and becoming attentive to different dimensions of research and its outputs that emerge through the introduction of Art Thinking. This becomes crucial in order to tackle the manifold big-scale problems such as climate and biodiversity crises which call for both acting decisively and transforming radically, above all in regards to how we perceive, relate to and manage forests.
xMobil (2021-) is a multi-stakeholder prototype development process of a mobile laboratory in a solar-powered car trailer, assembled mostly of salvaged technology parts and reused materials, geared for investigative-art and DIY/DIWO-workshop applications. Empowering creativity and innovation in off-grid public and remote locations, and promoting autonomous art-science practices as well as creative-community projects, particularly in the realm of environmentalism, it combines the work of artists, designers, architects, researchers and engineers who act as mentors to both students and non-formal learners coming from diverse educational programs, both formal and non-formal. xMobil was conceived by a community of developers and future users representing highly diverse sectors, from industry, independent arts production, natural sciences and education (teachers and students), to activism, and even local governance or cultural policy.
The contribution will eventually raise the issue of visibility, sustainability and preservation of such transitory projects or platforms, where artistic(-cum-scientific) works are based on grassroots research and experimentation, examining their methodological approach as well as their topic-setting as regards the limits of growth, and not least discussing their costs to social and natural ecosystems, increasingly permeated by technology.
Ključne besede: art thinking, ecology, bioeconomy, DIY, autonomy, art and science
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.09.2023; Ogledov: 498; Prenosov: 0
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Dancing sympathy beyond human failure : artistic research as cosmopolitical defuturingPeter Purg
, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek
The article explores the concepts, tools and methods that may be taken on board by artistic researchers when venturing into uncertain futures. The approaching hay-day of Artistic Research calls for a repositioning of this academic and cultural avantgarde that is assuming real power and must thus take clear opposition against dominant politics and corporate capitalism keeping the human and non-human kinds in perpetual crisis. Next to Science and Technology, Art has finally reached a status of an equivalued cornerstone, and within this level playing field a new research-based approach is needed where power relationships, decision-making mechanisms, dominant narratives or prevalent aesthetics are boldly investigated and critically questioned, (re)instituting the importance of artistic disruption and establishing art-thinking as the key to not only question but also design pathways to meaningful change. Deeply intertwined research methodologies ranging from social to natural sciences, from humanities via (critically reflected) technologies to the (technologically emancipated) arts, should be left to safely mingle and mutually inspire. Rather than colonizing it with yet another false supremacy, we should be learning from the Global South, where collective dancing, storytelling or performing still presents a norm of how to generate new knowledge or reach consensus. Artistic Research can contribute to crafting better worlds even once AI entities get accepted as fellow researchers (if not dancers), their agency reflected in an attitude of radical sympathy (re)instituting care, justice and solidarity by ways of sound research activism.
Ključne besede: artistic research, interdisciplinary, posthumanism, art-science-technology, critical
Objavljeno v RUNG: 15.06.2023; Ogledov: 734; Prenosov: 8
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Mobility Media: an Archaeology of Identity Photography through Science, Art and Visual CultureEszter Polonyi
, predavanje na tuji univerzi
Opis: In an era of total surveillance, being in possession of a biometric ID document can still result in denial of one’s basic civil protections and human rights. The discovery of systematic errors in state-implemented facial recognition programs—such as in recognizing faces of color (Joy Buolamwini)—suggests the failure of current practices of global intelligence and mobility. This paper offers an archaeological investigation of the contemporary photo ID document. Returning to its invention in the 1920s, it examines the issues of conjectural knowledge (Carl Ginzburg), embodiment or tact (Béla Balázs) and the optical unconscious (Walter Benjamin) behind early “physiognomic” media.
Ključne besede: History of Science, History of Visual Culture, History of Art, History of Photography, Migration
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.01.2023; Ogledov: 795; Prenosov: 0
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Technological and analytical review of contact tracing apps for COVID-19 managementRajan Gupta
, Gaurav Pandey
, Poonam Chaudhary
, Saibal K. Pal
, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Role of technology is improving for COVID-19 management all around the world. Usage of mobile applications, web applications, cloud computing, and related technologies have helped many public administrators worldwide manage the current pandemic. Contact tracing applications are such mobile app solutions that are used by more than 100 countries today. This study presents a structured research review-based framework related to multiple contact tracing applications. The various components of the framework are related to technological working, design architecture, and feature analysis of the applications, along with the analysis of the acceptance of such applications worldwide. Also, components focusing on the security features and analysis of these applications based on Data Privacy, Security Vetting, and different attacks have been included in the research framework. Many applications are yet to explore the analytical capabilities of the data generated through contact tracing. The various use-cases identified for these applications are detecting positive case probability, identifying a containment zone in the country, finding regional hotspots, monitoring public events & gatherings, identifying sensitive routes, and allocating resources in various regions during the pandemic. This study will act as a guide for the users researching contact tracings applications using the proposed four-layered framework for their app assessment.
Ključne besede: novel corona virus, location technology, contact tracing applications, Aarogya Setu App, data science, data analysis
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.04.2021; Ogledov: 1811; Prenosov: 0
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