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Supernovae seen through gravitational telescopes
Tanja Petrushevska, 2017, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Gravitational lenses such as galaxies and galaxy clusters, can magnify the flux of background galaxies. These galaxies at high redshift can host supernovae (SNe) which, thanks to the magnification boost due to lensing, can be observed, otherwise too faint to be detected by current telescopes. Under the right circumstances, the background galaxies may also have multiple images due to the strong lensing. Of particular interest is to detect lensed supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia), because of their standard brightness. They could help improve lensing models and, if multiple images are observed, the Hubble constant can be measured independently. In this thesis, we use galaxy clusters as gravitational telescopes to search for lensed SNe at high redshift. We performed ground-based, near-infrared and optical search campaigns towards the massive clusters Abell 1689 and 370, which are among the most powerful gravitational telescopes known. Our search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core- collapse SNe at redshifts of 0.671 < z < 1.703 with significant magnification from the cluster. Owing to the power of the lensing cluster, we calculated the volumetric core-collapse SN rates for 0.4  z < 2.9, and find good agreement with previous estimates and predictions from cosmic star formation history. During our survey, we also discovered two SNe Ia in A1689 cluster members, which allowed us to determine the cluster Ia rate. Furthermore, we discuss the expectations of finding lensed SNe at high redshift in simulated search campaigns that can be conducted with upcoming ground- and space-based telescopes. Magnification from a galaxy lens also allows for detailed studies of the SN properties at high redshift that otherwise would not be possible. Spec- troscopic observations of lensed high-redshift SNe Ia are of particular interest since they can be used to test for evolution of the standard candle nature of these objects. However, if systematic redshift-dependent properties are found, their utility for future surveys could be challenged. We investigate whether the properties of the strongly lensed and very distant SN Ia PS1- 10afx at z = 1.4, deviates from the well-studied nearby and intermediate populations of normal SNe Ia. In other study, we report the discovery of the first resolved multiply-imaged gravitationally lensed SN Ia.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...telescopes, galaxy clusters, lensed supernovae, strong lensing, astronomical surveys and telescopes...
Ključne besede: supernovae, gravitational telescopes, galaxy clusters, lensed supernovae, strong lensing, astronomical surveys and telescopes
Objavljeno: 23.01.2018; Ogledov: 2599; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (28,31 MB)

Tidal Disruption Events seen through the eyes of Vera C. Rubin Observatory
Katja Bučar Bricman, 2021, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) are rare transients, which are considered to be promising tools in probing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their environments in quiescent galaxies, accretion physics, and jet formation mechanisms. The majority of $\approx$ 60 detected TDEs has been discovered with large field of view time-domain surveys in the last two decades. Currently, about 10 TDEs are discovered per year, and we expect this number will increase largely once the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) at Vera C. Rubin Observatory begins its observations. In this work we demonstrate and explore the capabilities of the LSST to study TDEs. To begin with, we simulate LSST observations of TDEs over $10$ years of survey duration by including realistic SED models from MOSFiT into the simulation framework of the LSST. SEDs are then converted into observed fluxes and light curves are simulated with the LSST observing strategy minion_1016. Simulated observations are used to estimate the number of TDEs the LSST is expected to observe and to assess the possibility of probing the SMBH mass distribution in the Universe with the observed TDE sample. We find that the LSST has a potential of observing ~1000 TDEs per year, the exact number depending on the SMBH mass distribution and the adopted observing strategy. In spite of this large number, we find that probing the SMBH mass distribution with LSST observed TDEs will not be straightforward, especially at the low-mass end. This is largely attributed to the fact that TDEs caused by low-mass black holes ($\le 10^6 M_\odot$) are less luminous and shorter than TDEs by heavier SMBHs ($> 10^6 M_\odot$), and the probability of observationally missing them with LSST is higher. Second, we built a MAF TDE metric for photometric identification of TDEs based on LSST data. We use the metric to evaluate the performance of different proposed survey strategies in identifying TDEs with pre-defined identification requirements. Since TDEs are blue in color for months after peak light, which separates them well from SNe and AGN, we include u-band observations as one of the criteria for a positive identification. We find that the number of identified TDEs strongly depends of the observing strategy and the number of u-band visits to a given field in the sky. Observing strategies with a larger number of u-band observations perform significantly better. For these strategies up to 10% of LSST observed TDEs satisfy the identification requirements.
Najdeno v: ključnih besedah
Povzetek najdenega: ...Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes Astronomical catalogs, atlases, sky surveys, databases, retrieval systems,... ...Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes Astronomical catalogs, atlases, sky surveys, databases, retrieval systems,...
Ključne besede: Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes Astronomical catalogs, atlases, sky surveys, databases, retrieval systems, archives, Black holes, Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges, Infall, accretion, and accretion disks
Objavljeno: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 594; Prenosov: 15
.pdf Polno besedilo (124,61 MB)

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