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1.
Biodiversity communication through art in the form of digital games and the communication potential of related online communities : diploma thesis
Tijana Mijušković, 2023, diplomsko delo

Opis: Biodiversity communication is becoming increasingly important in today’s age, as climate change and other factors contribute to the rapid decline of species and ecosystems across the globe. Art is growing in popularity as a tool of reaching people regarding environmental causes, as they convey the emotional, human side of this endeavor in a way that typical science communication isn’t able to. Digital games, arguably among the most persuasive art forms and now widely accessible, are well suited to educating as well as emotionally influencing their players. Online communities frequently form around games, providing a platform for discussion and potentially increasing the games’ total potential for biodiversity communication. In this thesis, the content of eight games from Steam’s list of top-rated games tagged with ‘Nature’ was analyzed, and seven online communities related to these games on the Discord and Reddit social media platforms were surveyed. There was found to be a number of different approaches among the eight games towards educating players about biodiversity and/or its conservation, and the survey of communities showed care towards and interest in biodiversity-related discussion and conservation gaming itself, as well as the fact that games and related discussion in online communities has potential to educate players and positively influence their interest in biodiversity topics. Online game-related communities may offer an additional avenue of approaching game players about biodiversity for science communicators, researchers, and game developers alike.
Ključne besede: biodiversity communication, biodiversity education, digital games, online communities, online discussion, social media platforms, video games
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.12.2023; Ogledov: 898; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Celotno besedilo (44,07 MB)
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2.
Biogenic amines in Hardanger ciders : the effect of native cider yeasts on biogenic amine production
Urban Česnik, Mitja Martelanc, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Ingunn Ovsthus, Lorena Butinar, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The presence of bioactive compounds in food and beverages of plant origin is mainly connected with higher nutritional value and better sensory properties. However, some of them can pose a threat to food product quality and human health. For example, excess biogenic amines (BAs) intake can cause different allergenic responses in individuals who have such intolerances. BAs have been intensively studied in recent years, especially in fermented foods like wine, meat, fish, and cheese. Among fermented beverages is apple cider still rather unexplored from this perspective. Especially since no such data exist for the Norwegian cider. Norwegian cider is becoming more and more popular in Norway in recent years among producers and consumers. Hardanger cider from Western Norway is very different from French, English, or Spanish ciders in terms of sensory characteristics, apple cultivars, and in the fermentation process. In Hardanger, the traditional cider is still produced by spontaneous fermentation of apple juice with naturally occurring yeasts that originate from the fruit or processing equipment surfaces. Lactic acid bacteria are known to be associated with BA formation. However, several studies reported about the BA-producing yeasts in winemaking. Due to the important role of natural yeasts in the production of Hardanger cider, we focused on the ability of BA formation by native yeasts. Thus, in our study, we followed the amounts of BAs in the Hardanger ciders during the fermentation process and characterize isolated yeasts if they have the ability to produce BAs under cidermaking conditions by performing a micro-fermentation experiment. From must/cider samples, taken during the fermentation process at 13 producers in the Hardanger region, we isolated 530 yeast isolates. Based on the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA we identified 25 different yeast species. As expected, yeast diversity was higher at the beginning compared to the middle fermentation stage, when mostly different non-Saccharomyces yeast species prevailed, while at the end of fermentation mainly Saccharomyces species with high ethanol tolerance were present. BAs were analyzed with the HPLC-UV method. In all apple juice/cider samples 4 different BAs (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine) were detected and quantified with external calibration. On average in all cider samples from the producers total BA (summation of all BAs) concentration reached 9,45 mg/L, however in one case even 25 mg/L. Tyramine was the most abundant BA in all fermentation stages. 40 isolated yeast strains were further tested for BA formation in a small-scale experiment by fermenting apple juice. Results show that non-Saccharomyces yeasts mainly form histamine (1,68 mg/L) and tyramine (1,30 mg/L), while Saccharomyces yeasts putrescine (0,48 mg/L) and tyramine (3,53 mg/L). As a general conclusion, the occurrence and distribution of BA concentrations in the small-scale fermentation were lower (2,96 mg/L and 4,01 mg/L) and less variable than in the real ciders (average in final ciders 9,45 mg/L) and with tyramine being the most abundant BA in all samples analyzed.
Ključne besede: cider, yeast, biogenic amines, Hardanger, biodiversity
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.06.2023; Ogledov: 1069; Prenosov: 5
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3.
Cider yeasts associated with Hardanger cider during fermentation process
Urban Česnik, Mitja Martelanc, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Ingunn Ovsthus, Lorena Butinar, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: In the Hardanger area in Western Norway, the production of cider has a long tradition that goes back to the 12th century, when monks introduced apple growing in this area. Nowadays, this is also the main area of fruit production in Norway. Despite the strict regulation of the alcoholic beverage production in Norway, traditional cider is still produced on some farms in this area. Therefore, our aim was to study the ecology and biodiversity of the yeasts associated with the cider production in the Hardanger area during fermentation process; especially of traditional cider, which is produced by a spontaneous fermentation of apple juice, performed by naturally occurring indigenous yeasts that originate from the fruit or the surfaces of the processing equipment. In our study, samples of fermenting juice/cider were taken during fermentation process from 12 producers, located in 12 different locations in Hardanger region. Classical cultivation methods using WL (Wallerstein Laboratories) agar medium with added chloramphenicol enable us to isolate a total of 530 yeast isolates that were stored in in-house yeast collection at the NIBIO and included also at the Wine Research Centre collection. Based on the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA we managed to identify 357 isolates and distinguished 27 different yeast species as follows: Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida californica, C. oleophila, C, sake, Hanseniaspora meyeri, H. uvarum, H. valbyensis. Kregervanrija fluxuum, Kregervanrija sp., Metschnikowia andauensis, M. chrysoperlae, M. fructicola, M. pulcherrima, Metschnikowia sp, Pichia fermentans, P. kluyveri, P. membranifaciens, P. nakasei, Piskurozyma capsuligena, Rhodotorula nothofagi, Saccharomyces bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, S. pastorianus, Saccharomyces sp., S. uvarum and Torulaspora delbrueckii. Even though we were not able to obtain samples in three different fermentation stages (beginning, middle and at the end of fermentation) from all producers, we could observe yeast succession during fermentation progress. Yeast diversity was higher at the beginning comparing to the middle of fermentation, when mostly different non-Saccharomyces yeast species prevailed, while in the middle of fermentation 11 species were detected (Candida californica, H. uvarum, H. valbyensis, Kregervanrija sp., K. fluxuum, Pichia membranifaciens, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Saccharomyces sp, S. bayanus, S. uvarum and S. cerevisie). On the other hand, at the end of fermentation mainly Saccharomyces species with high ethanol tolerance were present (Saccharomyces sp., S. cerevisiae, bayanus, S. uvarum and P. fermentans). In samples that were collected from three producers in all three fermentation stages also quality parameters were determined (ethanol, organic acids, sugars, biogenic amines) with in-house developed methods using HPLC-UV/RID. The most important sugars in ciders were fructose and glucose, as expected. Two producers added sugar to increase the level of ethanol in the middle of fermentation, which is a common procedure in the Hardanger area. Ethanol and organic acid analysis indicated that fermentations went in the right direction, since all parameters were within normal limits. Including the acetic acid level, an indicator of low cider quality, was very low (average around 0,06 g/L). The alcohol incised from the beginning to end fermentation in all samples analysed and minimum concentration was 2,71 g/L. In ciders we detected four biogenic amines (putrescin, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine). The average amount was 32 mg/L and the most abundant was tyramine.
Ključne besede: indigenous yeasts, biodiversity, spontaneous fermentation, cider-making
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.10.2022; Ogledov: 1339; Prenosov: 0
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4.
Changing the ground : science, art a& public engagement
Céline Charvériat, Peter Purg, 2022, objavljeni povzetek strokovnega prispevka na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Ključne besede: biodiversity, art, circular economy, JRC, EU
Objavljeno v RUNG: 24.06.2022; Ogledov: 1382; Prenosov: 6
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5.
STEAM ecology : sciart & education
Gunalan Nadarajan, Peter Purg, 2022, objavljeni povzetek strokovnega prispevka na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Ključne besede: biodiversity, circular economy, EU
Objavljeno v RUNG: 24.06.2022; Ogledov: 1458; Prenosov: 6
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6.
Arthropod biodiversity associated to European sheep grazed pastures
Rocio Rosa García, Tanja Peric, 2019, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: We analysed the biodiversity of foliage arthropods in nine sheep grazed pasturelands in five European countries. During the maximum flowering period in 2018, entomofauna was collected in 4-6 areas within each pasture, performing 6 transects/area and 25 sweeps per transect. Multivariate analyses tested the differences in total arthropod community composition among degrees of intensification, bioregions and types of pastures. A total of 51,474 arthropods from 3 classes, 17 orders and 95 taxonomical groups were recorded. Univariate analyses revealed that total arthropod abundance was higher in extensive than in intensive systems (P<0.01). It also differed between bioregions (higher in Alpine than in Continental, P<0.05) and between types of pastures (higher in mountain than in lowland pastures where animals are supplemented, P<0.05). Total taxa richness was not influenced by any of the three factors. However, multivariate analyses indicated that community composition differed among intensive and extensive systems, bioregions and types of pastures (P<0.001). The greatest differences occurred between Alpine and Mediterranean (P<0.001), and Mediterranean and Continental pastures (P<0.05), as well as between lowland seminatural and improved pastures (P<0.05), and seminatural and mountain pastures (P<0.001). These results reveal the complex and varied communities associated to the diverse sheep systems and valorise the role of the more extensive, mountain and natural pastures for the conservation of biodiversity in sheep grazed areas.
Ključne besede: Arthropods, Biodiversity, Sustainability, Management
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.10.2019; Ogledov: 3262; Prenosov: 0
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7.
Biodiversity of cider yeasts and their cider-making potential
Eivind Vangdal, Melita Sternad Lemut, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Lorena Butinar, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: In the area of Hardanger, a part of the fjord region in Western Norway, the production of apple wine (cider) has a long tradition that goes back to the 12th century, when monks introduced apple growing in this area. Nowadays, this is also the main area of fruit production in Norway. Despite the strict regulation of the alcoholic beverage production in Norway, traditional cider is still produced on some farms in this area. By tradition cider is produced by a spontaneous fermentation process of apple juice, performed by naturally occurring indigenous yeasts that originate from the fruit or the surfaces of the processing equipment. Therefore, our aim was primarily to study the ecology and biodiversity of the yeasts associated with the production of traditional cider in the Hardanger area. For two consecutive years, we sampled at 11 different locations in the observed region, where we collected cider samples and surface swabs of processing facilities from the cideries, and also soil and various parts of apple trees in orchards owned by the same producers. Thus, by enriching collected samples with the selective medium with high sugar and ethanol concentration, we managed to isolate about 1,300 yeasts. Based on the multiplex PCR results the yeasts were grouped into the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The isolates were determined to the species level by performing the restriction analysis of ITS PCR products, and in some cases identifications were confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and/ or ITS region. As expected, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from the genus Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora mainly populated the orchards, while the Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated in the orchards from the soil and fruits. In contrast, in ciders the species S. uvarum was predominantly found, occasionally also S. cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii and P. membranifacies. Indigenous cider yeasts were further on characterized in micro-plate format for the most important cider-making technological parameters (tolerance to ethanol, SO2, growth at low pH), for the presence of glucoside hydrolase activity, H2S production ability, and assimilation of malic acid. Based on this screenings the micro-scale fermentations of apple juice were performed with 13 different indigenous cider yeasts as monocultures. The most promising indigenous yeasts, T. delbrueckii and S. uvarum, were also tested as mixed cultures in sequential fermentations. Since the tested strain of T. delbrueckii as monoculture was not able to complete the alcoholic fermentation, better results were obtained in sequential fermentation with the mixed culture in combination with S. uvarum.
Ključne besede: indigenous yeasts, biodiversity, spontaneous fermentation, cider-making
Objavljeno v RUNG: 08.11.2017; Ogledov: 6260; Prenosov: 0
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8.
Isolation and selection wild yeasts for winemaking
Natalia Mikhaylina, 2017, diplomsko delo

Opis: The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of fermentative yeast species in a non-vineyard and vineyard environment, and exploit their oenological potential. For this purpose we collected plant and soil material in the vineyard (located in Črniče in Vipava Valley) planted with Vitis vinifera L. and in the forest (forest in Vipava Old Castle), and by using a selective medium with high ethanol and sugar content we managed to obtain 35 isolates. By sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA we identified nine different yeast species. The oenological potential of identified yeasts was further investigated by employing a series of tests, such as growth at low pH values, tolerance to ethanol and sulfur, and H2S production ability. Based on the results of these tests we selected four different yeast species for the microvinification of Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ grape juice. A commercial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lalvin D47 was also included as a control in the fermentation experiment. Fermentation monitoring was done by measuring daily weight loss and microbiological analysis in the middle of fermentation. For the final wines, sugars were determined and sensorial evaluation performed. Among four tested yeasts, S. paradoxus IVV 32 and Torulaspora delbrueckii IVV 36 appeared to be the most promising for winemaking, but further studies should be carried out.
Ključne besede: wine, Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Pinot Noir’, biodiversity, yeasts, fermentation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.07.2017; Ogledov: 6027; Prenosov: 284
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,57 MB)

9.
EXPLORING BIODIVERSITY POTENTIAL OF WINE ASSOCIATED YEASTS
Sofia Dashko, 2015, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Human exploitation of yeast fermentation dates back to the Neolithic. S. cerevisiae has been the most important yeast used for numerous fermentations of biotechnological interest, including grape fermentation for wine production. Despite its abundant use, the molecular mechanisms controlling alcoholic fermentation are rather unclear and the choice of S. cerevisiae as an inoculum is often the consequence of a mere habit, rather than the result of rational analyses. In this work we focused on the role of different yeasts in the winemaking process. I was interested in understanding how the specific strain used for inoculum could influence the wine aroma formation. Furthermore, I wished to investigate the yeast genetics and ecology by characterizing their population and strain diversity in one of the wine regions of Slovenia. To evaluate the effect of the yeast species on the fermentation outcome, we performed successive fermentations with five different species in combination with the industrial strain S. cerevisiae Lalvin T73. The experiment showed that at least two more yeast species, Kazachstania gamospora and Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis have good potential to be applied in the winemaking. , The main conclusions of this study are the possibility of: i) expanding the palette of alternative starters to widen the aromatic components ii) co–fermenting using two different yeast species. Mixed yeast culture fermentations are present in the natural context, but this practice has been neglected in biotechnological processes. Positive results of wine fermentations with non – conventional yeast urged us to explore the diversity of Slovenian wine region natural isolates. The resulting yeast collection counts more than 1200 strains for which phenotype and genotype have been defined. Numerous isolates, including non – Saccharomyces species, showed promising oenological and biotechnological traits because of their capacity of rapid utilization of various carbon sources, growth at low pH and at presence of copper sulfite and potassium metabisulfite. Sampling also revealed sharp discrimination between the ecological niches of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, which is a striking feature of European vineyards. While S. cerevisiae habitats are strongly associated with human activity, S. paradoxus was mainly isolated from the forest sources. Profound analysis of the collected data could give some explanations to the driving forces of S. cerevisiae domestication and S. paradoxus geographic isolation population structure.
Ključne besede: Yeasts, biodiversity, molecular biology, alcoholic fermentation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.11.2015; Ogledov: 8699; Prenosov: 165
.pdf Celotno besedilo (41,27 MB)

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