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1.
Categorically perceiving vs. Categorizing while perceiving: The role of segments' recognition and lexical access while categorizing the pragmatic function of pitch movements in speech.
Alessandra Zappoli, Cinzia Avesani, Massimo Grassi, Francesco Vespignani, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Speech perception studies have highlighted: i) auditory-articulatory mapping processes; ii) Categorical Perception (CP) (Liberman et al., 1967); iii) bottom-up formation of phonological categories through statistical learning; iv) top-down mechanisms shaping the perceptual space (Kuhl et al., 1992). Among several open questions, we focus on: i) the relation between speech perception features and other aspects of cognition involving categorization (Holt & Lotto,2010); ii) the cognitive mechanisms responsible for pitch categorization and discrimination in linguistic and non-linguistic contexts. Pitch in speech is organized in phonological categories (Pitch Accents, Boundary Tones (BTs)) aligned to the text and conveys syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic information (Ladd, 1996). Perception of BTs has been found Quasi-Categorical (Schneider, 2012). We investigated the presence of CP of BTs (Rising vs. Descending final contours) discriminating between questions and statements. In Italian, intonation alone can distinguish the two. We adopted a modified version of the CP paradigm and tested 34 participants in 2 groups, varying the linguistic segmental information. Group 1 saw: 1) existing words; 2) pseudowords; 3) pseudowords containing foreign phonemes; 4) masked segmental information (humming). Group 2 the reverse order. Our results show that the pragmatic interpretation of the pitch contour is top-down activated and accessed on degraded linguistic material when stimuli are presented in the word-to-humming order, and bottom-up created through a categorization process in the humming-to-word order. The results also show that in absence of recognizable segmental information (humming), pitch shows to be categorized according to its acoustic properties, rather than on its function in speech.
Ključne besede: categorical perception, categorization, linguistic pitch categorization, pragmatic categorization of pitch contours, boundary tones, italian
Objavljeno v RUNG: 30.08.2022; Ogledov: 1528; Prenosov: 0
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2.
Categorical Perception of a vowel contrast in native speakers and second language learners.
Alessandra Zappoli, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The perceptual space of a speaker is shaped in infancy according to the phonological inventory of the L1. Phonological categories correlate with Categorical Perception (CP) and Perceptual Magnet (PM) effects, lowering the discrimination rate between the same category’s sounds and increasing it at the Category Boundaries (Liberman et al., 1967; Kuhl et al., 1992). Second Language (L2) learning in adulthood requires creating new categories, some overlapping with the existing ones. When L2 and L1 categories overlap, the PM and CP effects might block the creation of the target L2 sounds, linked to Foreign Accented speech. In this study, I investigate with the CP paradigm, the categorization, and discrimination of two German words: ʃɔːn] (‘already’) vs. [ʃøːn] (‘beautiful’) distinguished by a vowel contrast existing in German but not in Italian. I tested: i) 20 L1 speakers of German (L1); 34 L2 learners of German, L1 speakers of Italian – ii) 14 exposed to native speech (Tandem); iii) 18 not exposed to it; iv) 20 L1 speakers of Italian (Naïve). The oddball discrimination task presented the stimuli in 6 orders: AAB, ABA, ABB, BAA, BAB, BBA. L2 learners performed the LEXTALE in German (Lemhöfer & Broersma, 2012). Results show that the categorization and discrimination performance linearly increase with language proficiency. Categorization only correlates with LEXTALE. Exposure to native speech is relevant. The presence of CP - as classically reported in the literature - is affected by the order of presentation of the stimuli in the oddball paradigm, emerging with BAB, ABA, BBA orders.
Ključne besede: vowel categorization, speech categorization, naive listeners, native speakers, L2 learners, categorical perception paradigm, perceptual space
Objavljeno v RUNG: 30.08.2022; Ogledov: 1649; Prenosov: 0
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