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1.
Constraints on upward-going air showers using the Pierre Auger Observatory data
Emanuele De Vito, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to upward-going air showers with energies above 1017 eV. Given its operation time and wide field of view, the FD has the potential to support or constrain the “anomalous” observations by the ANITA detector, interpreted as upward-going air showers that would be indicative of Beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics. To this end, a search for upward-going air showers with the FD has been performed applying selection criteria that were optimized using 10% of FD data. Dedicated background simulations (downward-going events) have been performed to estimate our capability to distinguish candidates from false positives. Also dedicated signal simulations (upward-going events) have been used to estimate our sensitivity to such showers with a focus on the energy region close to the ANITA observations. Improved and updated results of the Pierre Auger Observatory exposure to upward-going showers will be presented after the unblinding of 14 years of FD data. Extensive simulations allow the FD exposure to be obtained at lower energies which are particularly relevant for the comparison with the ANITA results. A refinement of the method for signal discrimination and background rejection has also been applied. The implications are discussed under the assumption that the ANITA events were due to upward-going events.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, air showers, beyond standard model, fluorescence detectors, ANITA
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 480; Prenosov: 6
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2.
Study of downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Roberta Colalillo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory, consisting of 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), covers 3000 km2 in the Argentinian pampa. Thanks to the high efficiency of WCDs in detecting gammarays, it represents a unique instrument for studying downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) over a large area. Peculiar events, likely related to downward TGFs, were detected at the Auger Observatory. Their experimental signature and time evolution are very different from those of a shower produced by an ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray. They happen in coincidence with low thunderclouds and lightning, and their large deposited energy at the ground is compatible with that of a standard downward TGF with the source a few kilometers above the ground. A new trigger algorithm to increase the TGF-like event statistics was installed in the whole array. The study of the performance of the new trigger system during the lightning season is ongoing and will provide a handle to develop improved algorithms to implement in the Auger upgraded electronic boards. The available data sample, even if small, can give important clues about the TGF production models, in particular, the shape of WCD signals. Moreover, the SD allows us to observe more than one point in the TGF beam, providing information on the emission angle.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, surface detectors, extensive air shower, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 524; Prenosov: 6
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3.
The second knee in the cosmic ray spectrum observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Gabriel Brichetto Orquera, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The determination of the energy spectrum features with low systematic uncertainty is crucial for interpreting the nature of cosmic rays. In this study, we conducted a measurement of the energy spectrum at the Pierre Auger Observatory using a surface detector with a calorimetric energy scale indirectly set by a fluorescence detector. The surface detector consists of an array of water-Cherenkov detectors that extends over 3000 km^2 with 1500m spacing. Additionally, two nested arrays of the same kind with 750m and 433m spacing were utilized to lower the energy threshold of the measurements. This contribution presents, for the first time, the spectrum measured with the 433m array, which reduces the energy threshold down to 63 PeV, nearly half the energy at which we previously published a steepening using the 750m array. Our measurements include a characterization of the spectral features of the flux steepening around 230 PeV, known as the second-knee. The study benefits from a nearly 100% duty cycle and geometrical exposure. Notably, this is the first simultaneous measurement of the second knee energy and spectral indexes before and after the break, using a surface detector with an energy scale predominantly independent of air shower simulations and assumptions regarding hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, hadronic interaction model, water-Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 468; Prenosov: 4
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4.
The performances of the upgraded surface detector stations of AugerPrime
Fabio Convenga, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is an array of 1,600 stations using a water Cherenkov detector (WCD) for particle detection. The array is undergoing a major upgrade known as AugerPrime that involves adding scintillator surface detectors (SSDs) and radio antennas to the existing WCDs. Each WCD is also equipped with a smaller photomultiplier tube added to the original ones. As part of the upgrade, underground muon detectors are being installed in an area with a higher density of surface detector stations. AugerPrime required the development of new electronics to process the signals from all the new detectors and handle a higher sampling rate, a more precise GPS receiver, an extended dynamic range, higher processing capacity, and improved monitoring systems and memory. The deployment of the SSDs on top of each surface detector station is currently completed together with the deployment of the new electronics. This contribution will present the first data from the upgraded stations, emphasizing the performances of the SSDs and the new electronics.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, scintillation surface detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 475; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,24 MB)
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5.
Measurements of cloud base height and coverage using elastic multiangle lidar scans at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Juan Pallotta, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Cloud features significantly affect the reconstruction of extensive air showers, and their characterization plays an important role in atmospheric monitoring. A multi-directional characterization of the cloud pattern is provided by a combination of several instruments of the atmospheric monitoring network at the Pierre Auger Observatory (Mendoza Province, Argentina). In this work, we present the results of an analysis of the cloud measurements using data taken from 2007 to 2022 by the elastic lidars positioned in the proximity of the fluorescence detector (FD) sites. These systems provide hourly measurements of cloud coverage and base height above FD. The ansatz of horizontal homogeneity of cloud structures is tested by comparing the hourly measurements of cloud base height and coverage done simultaneously at different lidar locations. These results allow a detailed description of cloud patterns observed above the array throughout the whole period. The variation of cloud parameters is shown and quantitative conclusions about cloud homogeneity across the array of the Pierre Auger Observatory are given.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detectors, fluorescence detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 459; Prenosov: 6
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6.
Deep-learning-based cosmic-ray mass reconstruction using the water-Cherenkov and scintillation detectors of AugerPrime
Niklas Langner, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the highest energies, cosmic rays can be detected only indirectly by the extensive air showers they create upon interaction with the Earth’s atmosphere. While high-statistics measurements of the energy and arrival directions of cosmic rays can be performed with large surface detector arrays like the Pierre Auger Observatory, the determination of the cosmic-ray mass on an event-by-event basis is challenging. Meaningful physical observables in this regard include the depth of maximum of air-shower profiles, which is related to the mean free path of the cosmic ray in the atmosphere and the shower development, as well as the number of muons that rises with the number of nucleons in a cosmic-ray particle. In this contribution, we present an approach to determine both of these observables from combined measurements of water-Cherenkov detectors and scintillation detectors, which are part of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Observatory. To characterize the time-dependent signals of the two detectors both separately as well as in correlation to each other, we apply deep learning techniques. Transformer networks employing the attention mechanism are especially well-suited for this task. We present the utilized network concepts and apply them to simulations to determine the precision of the event-by-event mass reconstruction that can be achieved by the combined measurements of the depth of shower maximum and the number of muons.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, muons, extensive air showers, surface detectors, AugerPrime, deep learning techiniques
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 438; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,93 MB)
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7.
Investigating multiple ELVES and halos above strong lightning with the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Roberto Mussa, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: ELVES are being studied since 2013 with the twenty-four FD Telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, in the province of Mendoza (Argentina), the world’s largest facility for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This study exploits a dedicated trigger and extended readout. Since December 2020, this trigger has been extended to the three High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT), which observe the night sky at elevation angles between 30 and 60 degrees, allowing a study of ELVES from closer lightning. The high time resolution of the Auger telescopes allows us to upgrade reconstruction algorithms and to do detailed studies on multiple ELVES. The origin of multiple elves can be studied by analyzing the time difference and the amplitude ratio between flashes and comparing them with the properties of radio signals detected by the ENTLN lightning network since 2018. A fraction of multi-ELVES can also be interpreted as halos following ELVES. Halos are disc-shaped light transients emitted at 70-80 km altitudes, appearing at the center of the ELVES rings, due to the rearrangement of electric charges at the base of the ionosphere after a strong lightning event.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detectors, fluorescence detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 451; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,35 MB)
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8.
Auger@TA : an Auger-like surface detector micro-array embedded within the Telescope Array Project
S. Mayotte, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) and the Telescope Array Project (TA) are the two largest ultra-highenergy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatories in the world. One obstacle in pursuing full-sky UHECR physics is the apparent discrepancy in flux measured by the two experiments. This could be due to astrophysical differences as Auger and TA observe the Southern and Northern skies, respectively. However, the scintillation detectors used by TA have very different sensitivity to the various components of extensive air showers than the water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) used by Auger. The discrepancy could also be due to systematic effects arising from the differing detector designs and reconstruction methods. The primary goal of the Auger@TA working group is to cross-calibrate the approaches of the two observatories using in-situ methods. This is achieved by placing a self-triggering micro-array, which consists of eight Auger surface detector stations, with both WCDs and AugerPrime scintillators, within the TA array. Seven of the WCDs use a 1-PMT prototype configuration and form a hexagon with the Auger spacing of 1.5 km. The eighth station uses a standard 3-PMT Auger WCD, placed with a TA station at the center of the hexagon to form a triplet for high-statistics, low-uncertainty, cross-calibration of instrumentation. Deployment of the micro-array took place between September 2022 and August 2023, with data-taking foreseen by the Fall of 2023. Details on the instrumentation and deployment of the micro-array, as well as its expected performance, trigger efficiencies, and event rate will be presented. First data from individual stations will also be shown.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Telescope Array, AugerPrime, scintillators, water-Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 454; Prenosov: 6
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9.
The dynamic range of the upgraded surfac-detector stations of AugerPrime
Gioacchino Alex Anastasi, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays by means of giant detector arrays is often limited by the saturation of the recorded signals near the impact point of the shower core at the ground, where the particle density dramatically increases. The saturation affects in particular the highest energy events, worsening the systematic uncertainties in the reconstruction of the shower characteristics. The upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory, called AugerPrime, includes the installation of an 1-inch Small PhotoMultiplier Tube (SPMT) inside each water-Cherenkov station (WCD) of the surface detector array. The SPMT allows an unambiguous measurement of signals down to about 250m from the shower core, thus reducing the number of events featuring a saturated station to a negligible level. In addition, a 3.8m2 plastic scintillator (Scintillator Surface Detector, SSD) is installed on top of each WCD. The SSD is designed to match the WCD (with SPMT) dynamic range, providing a complementary measurement of the shower components up to the highest energies. In this work, the design and performances of the upgraded AugerPrime surface detector stations in the extended dynamic range are described, highlighting the accuracy of the measurements. A first analysis employing the unsaturated signals in the event reconstruction is also presented.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence detectors, scintillator surface detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 521; Prenosov: 6
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10.
A novel tool for the absolute end-to-end calibration of fluorescence telescopes : the XY-scanner
Christoph Schäfer, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory uses 27 large-aperture wide-angle Schmidt telescopes to measure the longitudinal profile of air showers using the air-fluorescence technique. Up to the year 2013, the absolute calibration of the telescopes was performed by mounting a uniform large-diameter light source on each of the telescopes and illuminating the entire aperture with a known photon flux. Due to the high amount of work and person-power required, this procedure was only carried out roughly once every three years, and a relative calibration was performed every night to track short-term changes. Since 2013, only the relative calibration has been performed. In this paper, we present a novel tool for the absolute end-to-end calibration of the fluorescence detectors, the XY-Scanner. The XY-Scanner uses a portable integrating sphere as a light source, which has been absolutely calibrated. This light source is installed onto a motorized rail system and moved across the aperture of each telescope. We mimic the illumination of the entire aperture by flashing the light source at ∼1700 positions evenly distributed across the telescope aperture. For the absolute calibration of the light source, we built a dedicated setup that uses a NIST-calibrated photodiode to measure the average photon flux and a PMT to track the pulse-to-pulse stability. We present the laboratory setups used to study the characteristics of the employed light sources and discuss the inter-calibration between selected telescopes.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence detectors, longitudinal profile
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 591; Prenosov: 6
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