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31.
The number of muons measured in hybrid events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory
Maximilian Stadelmaier, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The number of muons produced in extensive air showers is a reliable proxy for the amount of hadron production that occurs during the shower development. It is, therefore, an important observable in the context of identifying the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Beyond LHC energies, however, hadronic multiparticle production as it occurs in air showers from ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, is poorly understood, and currently there is little to no way to directly test it experimentally. In simulations, current models of hadronic interactions are unable to produce the average number of muons that is measured by multiple air-shower experiments. In this work, we estimate the number of muons in vertical hybrid events detected by both the fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory above a primary energy of 3 EeV. To reconstruct the signal, we use a model of the water-Cherenkov detector responses that is based on air-shower universality. We take into account the effect of the longitudinal shower development on the lateral distribution of the signal at the ground, as well as the primary energy estimated from the calorimetric energy deposition of the air shower. In this way, we are able to estimate the amount of muons created in vertical showers, relative to expectations from simulated showers using modern hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, muons, extensive air showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 708; Prenosov: 5
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32.
Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles above ▫$10^{17.8}$▫ eV measured with the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory and mass-composition implications
Thomas Fitoussi, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: After seventeen years of operation, the first phase of measurements at the PierreAuger Observatory finished and the process of upgrading it began. In this work, we present distributions of the depth of air-shower maximum, �max, using profiles measured with the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is based on the Phase I data collected from 01 December 2004 to 31 December 2021. The �max measurements take advantage of an improved evaluation of the vertical aerosol optical depth and reconstruction of the shower profiles. We present the energy dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the �max distributions above 10^(17.8) eV. Both �max moments are corrected for detector effects and interpreted in terms of the mean logarithmic mass and variance of the masses by comparing them to the predictions of post-LHC hadronic interaction models. We corroborate our earlier findings regarding the change of the elongation rate of the mean �max at 10^(18.3) eV with higher significance. We also confirm, with four more years of data compared to the last results presented in 2019, that around the ankle in the cosmic rays spectrum, the proton component gradually disappears and that intermediate mass nuclei dominate the composition at ultra-high energies.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, protons, surface detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 652; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,16 MB)
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33.
Reconstruction of muon number of air showers with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory using neural networks
Steffen Traugott Hahn, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: To understand the physics of cosmic rays at the highest energies, it is mandatory to have an accurate knowledge of their mass composition. Since the mass of the primary particles cannot be measured directly, we have to rely on the analysis of mass-sensitive observables to gain insights into this composition. A promising observable for this purpose is the number of muons at the ground relative to that of an air shower induced by a proton primary of the same energy and inclination angle, commonly referred to as the relative muon number �μ. Due to the complexity of shower footprints, the extraction of �μ from measurements is a challenging task and intractable to solve using analytic approaches. We, therefore, reconstruct �μ by exploiting the spatial and temporal information of the signals induced by shower particles using neural networks. Using this data-driven approach permits us to tackle this task without the need of modeling the underlying physics and, simultaneously, gives us insights into the feasibility of such an approach. In this contribution, we summarize the progress of the deep-learning-based approach to estimate �μ using simulated surface detector data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Instead of using single architecture, we present different network designs verifying that they reach similar results. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential for estimating �μ using the scintillator surface detector of the AugerPrime upgrade.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime, surface detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 737; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (939,38 KB)
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34.
A novel tool for the absolute end-to-end calibration of fluorescence telescopes : the XY-scanner
Christoph Schäfer, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory uses 27 large-aperture wide-angle Schmidt telescopes to measure the longitudinal profile of air showers using the air-fluorescence technique. Up to the year 2013, the absolute calibration of the telescopes was performed by mounting a uniform large-diameter light source on each of the telescopes and illuminating the entire aperture with a known photon flux. Due to the high amount of work and person-power required, this procedure was only carried out roughly once every three years, and a relative calibration was performed every night to track short-term changes. Since 2013, only the relative calibration has been performed. In this paper, we present a novel tool for the absolute end-to-end calibration of the fluorescence detectors, the XY-Scanner. The XY-Scanner uses a portable integrating sphere as a light source, which has been absolutely calibrated. This light source is installed onto a motorized rail system and moved across the aperture of each telescope. We mimic the illumination of the entire aperture by flashing the light source at ∼1700 positions evenly distributed across the telescope aperture. For the absolute calibration of the light source, we built a dedicated setup that uses a NIST-calibrated photodiode to measure the average photon flux and a PMT to track the pulse-to-pulse stability. We present the laboratory setups used to study the characteristics of the employed light sources and discuss the inter-calibration between selected telescopes.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence detectors, longitudinal profile
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 830; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,33 MB)
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35.
A new cross-check and review of aerosol attenuation measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Violet M. Harvey, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere above cosmic ray fluorescence detectors must be well characterised in order to precisely recover extensive air shower properties such as the calorimetric energy, �, and depth of shower maximum, �max. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses two centrally located laser facilities to measure the vertical aerosol optical depth profile (VAOD) every hour. It is assumed that the night with the clearest atmosphere each year is effectively aerosol free and that it is an appropriate reference to set the absolute scale of VAOD throughout that year. We review the successes of this method and its associated sources of systematic uncertainty, then present a new cross-check of measured VAOD using air shower events observed in stereo mode. Special attention is paid to quantifying the uncertainties on this result. As the technique is only sensitive to VAOD bias at a fixed altitude, we combine it with a study of aerosol profiles independently measured using a less-sensitive Raman lidar system. This allows us to derive a complete model of the upper limit on the possible bias in the average measured VAOD, which we attribute primarily to an uncertainty on whether the annual reference nights are completely aerosol free. We formulate a correction for this bias and apply it retroactively to all VAOD measurements, then repeat the analysis of the complete air shower dataset and discuss the small but significant effect of this new correction on � and �max. This correction is now fully integrated into the Auger analysis chain.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluoresecnce detectors, Xmax
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 734; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,45 MB)
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36.
Combined fit to the spectrum and composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory including magnetic horizon effects
Juan Manuel González, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays can be interpreted assuming the presence of two extragalactic source populations, one dominating the flux at energies above a few EeV and the other below. To fit the data ignoring magnetic field effects, the high-energy population needs to accelerate a mixture of nuclei with very hard spectra, at odds with the approximate �−2 shape expected from diffusive shock acceleration. The presence of turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields in the region between the closest sources and the Earth can significantly modify the observed CR spectrum with respect to that emitted by the sources, reducing the flux of low-rigidity particles that reach the Earth. We here take into account this magnetic horizon effect in the combined fit of the spectrum and shower depth distributions, exploring the possibility that a spectrum for the high-energy population sources with a shape closer to �^(−2) be able to explain the observations. We find that a large inter-source separation �s and a large magnetic field RMS amplitude within the Local Supercluster region, such that �rms ≃ 100 nG (40 Mpc/�s) √︁25 kpc/�coh, are needed to interpret the data within this scenario, where �coh is the magnetic field coherence length.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, mass composition, extragalactic magnetic fiels
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 709; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (623,35 KB)
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37.
Long-term calibration and stability of the Auger Engineering Radio Array using the diffuse Galactic radio emission
R. M. de Almeida, Andrej Filipčič, Jonathan Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), part of the Pierre Auger Observatory, is currently the largest facility to measure radio emissions from ultra-high energy extensive air showers. It comprises 153 autonomous radio-detector stations, covering an area of 17 km^2, and measures radio waves in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. An accurate description of the detector response is necessary to interpret the data collected by the stations correctly. Previously, this was achieved by measuring the analog chain in the laboratory and simulating and measuring the directional response of the antenna. In this work, we perform an absolute calibration using the continuously monitored sidereal modulation of the diffuse Galactic radio emission. The calibration is performed by comparing the average spectra recorded by the stations with a model of the full radio sky propagated through the system response, including the antenna, filters, and amplifiers. We describe the method to determine the calibration constants for each antenna and present the corresponding results. Furthermore, the behavior of the calibration constants is studied as a function of time. There is no relevant aging effect over a timescale of a decade, which shows that radio detectors could help monitor possible aging effects of other detector systems during long-term operations, stressing their importance in determining an absolute energy scale.
Ključne besede: pierre auger observatory, auger engineering radio array, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, radio detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 808; Prenosov: 34
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)
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38.
Mass composition from 3 EeV to 100 EeV using the depth of the maximum of air-shower profiles estimated with deep learning using surface detector data of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Jonas Glombitza, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a new analysis for estimating the depth of the maximum of air-shower profiles, �max, to investigate the evolution of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray mass composition from 3 to 100 EeV. We use a recently developed deep-learning-based technique for the reconstruction of �max from the data of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. To avoid systematic uncertainties arising from hadronic interaction models in the simulation of surface detector data, we calibrate the new reconstruction technique with observations of the fluorescence detector. Using the novel analysis, we have a 10-fold increase of statistics at � > 5 EeV with respect to fluorescence detector data. We are able, for the first time, to study the evolution of the mean and standard deviation of the �max distributions up to 100 EeV. We find an excellent agreement with fluorescence observations and confirm the increase of the mean logarithmic mass ⟨ln(�)⟩ and a decrease of the �max fluctuations with energy. The �max measurement at the highest — so far inaccessible — energies is consistent with a pure mass composition and a mean logarithmic mass of around ∼ 3 (estimated using the Sibyll 2.3d and the EPOS-LHC hadronic interaction models). Furthermore, with the increase in statistics, we find indications for a structure beyond a constant elongation rate in the evolution of �max.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detector, flourescence detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 729; Prenosov: 6
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39.
Monitoring the inter-calibration of the HEAT and Coihueco fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory with measurements of the brightness of the night sky
Alberto Segreto, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT) has increased the Field of View (FoV) of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) at the Coihueco site of the Pierre Auger Observatory and allowed the extension of the energy threshold for the measurements of energies and �max of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) down to ≈ 1017.2 eV. By temporarily orienting HEAT in the downward position, it acquires data in the same FoV as the other Coihueco telescopes, thus providing the opportunity to intercalibrate the detectors by multiple observations of the same EAS. To further control systematic uncertainties in �max and energy measurements, in this contribution we present an innovative method that takes advantage of the Night Sky Brightness (NSB) continuously measured with the FD data acquisition system for monitoring a possible evolution in time of the initial HEAT and Coihueco inter-calibration. While the brightness of the night sky evolves unpredictably and is highly dependent on local weather conditions, we expect to obtain consistent measurements from telescopes located at the same site and observing the same direction of the sky. In this work, we describe the method used to compare the NSB measured by the neighboring HEAT and Coihueco telescopes to monitor the stability of their relative calibration over time. This method allows us to study further the systematics in the inter-calibration of the FD telescopes.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, night sky brightness, high elevation Auger telescopes
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 775; Prenosov: 5
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40.
Investigations of a novel energy estimator using deep learning for the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Fiona Ellwanger, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Exploring physics at energies beyond the reach of human-built accelerators by studying cosmic rays requires an accurate reconstruction of their energy. At the highest energies, cosmic rays are indirectly measured by observing a shower of secondary particles produced by their interaction in the atmosphere. At the Pierre Auger Observatory, the energy of the primary particle is either reconstructed from measurements of the emitted fluorescence light, produced when secondary particles travel through the atmosphere, or shower particles detected with the surface detector at the ground. The surface detector comprises a triangular grid of water-Cherenkov detectors that measure the shower footprint at the ground level. With deep learning, large simulation data sets can be used to train neural networks for reconstruction purposes. In this work, we present an application of a neural network to estimate the energy of the primary particle from the surface detector data by exploiting the time structure of the particle footprint. When evaluating the precision of the method on air shower simulations, we find the potential to significantly reduce the composition bias compared to methods based on fitting the lateral signal distribution. Furthermore, we investigate possible biases arising from systematic differences between simulations and data.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detector, neural network
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 686; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,78 MB)
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