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1.
The performances of the upgraded surface detector stations of AugerPrime
Fabio Convenga, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is an array of 1,600 stations using a water Cherenkov detector (WCD) for particle detection. The array is undergoing a major upgrade known as AugerPrime that involves adding scintillator surface detectors (SSDs) and radio antennas to the existing WCDs. Each WCD is also equipped with a smaller photomultiplier tube added to the original ones. As part of the upgrade, underground muon detectors are being installed in an area with a higher density of surface detector stations. AugerPrime required the development of new electronics to process the signals from all the new detectors and handle a higher sampling rate, a more precise GPS receiver, an extended dynamic range, higher processing capacity, and improved monitoring systems and memory. The deployment of the SSDs on top of each surface detector station is currently completed together with the deployment of the new electronics. This contribution will present the first data from the upgraded stations, emphasizing the performances of the SSDs and the new electronics.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, scintillation surface detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 220; Prenosov: 5
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2.
Deep-learning-based cosmic-ray mass reconstruction using the water-Cherenkov and scintillation detectors of AugerPrime
Niklas Langner, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the highest energies, cosmic rays can be detected only indirectly by the extensive air showers they create upon interaction with the Earth’s atmosphere. While high-statistics measurements of the energy and arrival directions of cosmic rays can be performed with large surface detector arrays like the Pierre Auger Observatory, the determination of the cosmic-ray mass on an event-by-event basis is challenging. Meaningful physical observables in this regard include the depth of maximum of air-shower profiles, which is related to the mean free path of the cosmic ray in the atmosphere and the shower development, as well as the number of muons that rises with the number of nucleons in a cosmic-ray particle. In this contribution, we present an approach to determine both of these observables from combined measurements of water-Cherenkov detectors and scintillation detectors, which are part of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Observatory. To characterize the time-dependent signals of the two detectors both separately as well as in correlation to each other, we apply deep learning techniques. Transformer networks employing the attention mechanism are especially well-suited for this task. We present the utilized network concepts and apply them to simulations to determine the precision of the event-by-event mass reconstruction that can be achieved by the combined measurements of the depth of shower maximum and the number of muons.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, muons, extensive air showers, surface detectors, AugerPrime, deep learning techiniques
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 194; Prenosov: 5
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3.
The number of muons measured in hybrid events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory
Maximilian Stadelmaier, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The number of muons produced in extensive air showers is a reliable proxy for the amount of hadron production that occurs during the shower development. It is, therefore, an important observable in the context of identifying the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Beyond LHC energies, however, hadronic multiparticle production as it occurs in air showers from ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, is poorly understood, and currently there is little to no way to directly test it experimentally. In simulations, current models of hadronic interactions are unable to produce the average number of muons that is measured by multiple air-shower experiments. In this work, we estimate the number of muons in vertical hybrid events detected by both the fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory above a primary energy of 3 EeV. To reconstruct the signal, we use a model of the water-Cherenkov detector responses that is based on air-shower universality. We take into account the effect of the longitudinal shower development on the lateral distribution of the signal at the ground, as well as the primary energy estimated from the calorimetric energy deposition of the air shower. In this way, we are able to estimate the amount of muons created in vertical showers, relative to expectations from simulated showers using modern hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, muons, extensive air showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 218; Prenosov: 5
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4.
Studies of the UHECR Mass Composition and Hadronic Interactions with the FD and SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J.M. Carceller, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: With data on the depth of maximum Xmax collected during more than a decade of operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we report on the inferences on the mass composition of UHECRs in the energy range E = 10[sup]17.2 − 10[sup]19.6 eV and on the measurements of the proton-air cross section for energies up to 10[sup]18.5 eV. We also present the results on Xmax obtained using the information on the particle arrival times recorded by the SD stations allowing us to extend the Xmax measurements up to 10[sup]20 eV. The inferences on mass composition, in particular using the data of the SD, are subject to systematic uncertainties due to uncertainties in the description of hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies. We discuss this problem with respect to the properties of the muonic component of extensive air-showers as derived from the SD data.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, EAS electromagnetic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR mass composition, UHECR hadronic interactions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.10.2023; Ogledov: 532; Prenosov: 8
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5.
The fitting procedure for longitudinal shower profiles observed with the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. A. Bellido, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory uses fluorescence telescopes in conjunction with ground level particle detectors to measure high-energy cosmic rays and reconstruct, with greater precision, their arrival direction, their energy and the depth of shower maximum. The depth of shower maximum is important to infer cosmic ray mass composition. The fluorescence detector is capable of directly measuring the longitudinal shower development, which is used to reconstruct the cosmic ray energy and the atmospheric depth of shower maximum. However, given the limited field of view of the fluorescence detector, the shower profile is not always fully contained within the detector observation volume. Therefore, considerations need to be taken in order to reconstruct some events. In this contribution we will describe the method that the Pierre Auger Collaboration uses to reconstruct the longitudinal profiles of showers and present the details of its performance, namely its resolution and systematic uncertainties.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, longitudinal shower profiles
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.09.2023; Ogledov: 512; Prenosov: 6
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6.
Constraining the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays across and above the ankle with the spectrum and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Abdul Halim, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work we present the interpretation of the energy spectrum and mass composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Collaboration above 6 × 10[sup]17 eV. We use an astrophysical model with two extragalactic source populations to model the hardening of the cosmic-ray flux at around 5 × 10[sup]18 eV (the so-called "ankle" feature) as a transition between these two components. We find our data to be well reproduced if sources above the ankle emit a mixed composition with a hard spectrum and a low rigidity cutoff. The component below the ankle is required to have a very soft spectrum and a mix of protons and intermediate-mass nuclei. The origin of this intermediate-mass component is not well constrained and it could originate from either Galactic or extragalactic sources. To the aim of evaluating our capability to constrain astrophysical models, we discuss the impact on the fit results of the main experimental systematic uncertainties and of the assumptions about quantities affecting the air shower development as well as the propagation and redshift distribution of injected ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs).
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, UHECR propagation, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR mass composition
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.08.2023; Ogledov: 570; Prenosov: 6
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7.
Search for photons above ▫$10^19$▫ eV with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
P. Abreu, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We use the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory to search for air showers initiated by photons with an energy above 10[sup]19 eV. Photons in the zenith angle range from 30 deg. to 60 deg. can be identified in the overwhelming background of showers initiated by charged cosmic rays through the broader time structure of the signals induced in the water-Cherenkov detectors of the array and the steeper lateral distribution of shower particles reaching ground. Applying the search method to data collected between January 2004 and June 2020, upper limits at 95% CL are set to an E[sup]-2 diffuse flux of ultra-high energy photons above 10[sup]19 eV, 2 × 10[sup]19 eV and 4 × 10[sup]19 eV amounting to 2.11 × 10[sup]-3, 3.12 × 10[sup]-4 and 1.72 × 10[sup]-4 km-2 sr-1 yr-1, respectively. While the sensitivity of the present search around 2 × 10[sup]19 eV approaches expectations of cosmogenic photon fluxes in the case of a pure-proton composition, it is one order of magnitude above those from more realistic mixed-composition models. The inferred limits have also implications for the search of super-heavy dark matter that are discussed and illustrated.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, UHE photons, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, water Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.08.2023; Ogledov: 550; Prenosov: 7
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8.
Application of machine learning techniques for cosmic ray event classification and implementation of a real-time ultra-high energy photon search with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory : dissertation
Lukas Zehrer, 2021, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Despite their discovery already more than a century ago, Cosmic Rays (CRs) still did not divulge all their properties yet. Theories about the origin of ultra-high energy (UHE, > 10^18 eV) CRs predict accompanying primary photons. The existence of UHE photons can be investigated with the world’s largest ground-based experiment for detection of CR-induced extensive air showers (EAS), the Pierre Auger Observatory, which offers an unprecedented exposure to rare UHE cosmic particles. The discovery of photons in the UHE regime would open a new observational window to the Universe, improve our understanding of the origin of CRs, and potentially uncloak new physics beyond the standard model. The novelty of the presented work is the development of a "real-time" photon candidate event stream to a global network of observatories, the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). The stream classifies CR events observed by the Auger surface detector (SD) array as regards their probability to be photon nominees, by feeding to advanced machine learning (ML) methods observational air shower parameters of individual CR events combined in a multivariate analysis (MVA). The described straightforward classification procedure further increases the Pierre Auger Observatory’s endeavour to contribute to the global effort of multi-messenger (MM) studies of the highest energy astrophysical phenomena, by supplying AMON partner observatories the possibility to follow-up detected UHE events, live or in their archival data.
Ključne besede: astroparticle physics, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, ultra-high energy photons, extensive air showers, Pierre Auger Observatory, multi-messenger, AMON, machine learning, multivariate analysis, dissertations
Objavljeno v RUNG: 27.10.2021; Ogledov: 2643; Prenosov: 143
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9.
10.
Calibration of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Aab, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: To obtain direct measurements of the muon content of extensive air showers with energy above 10[sup]16.5 eV, the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently being equipped with an underground muon detector (UMD), consisting of 219 10 m[sup]2-modules, each segmented into 64 scintillators coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Direct access to the shower muon content allows for the study of both of the composition of primary cosmic rays and of high-energy hadronic interactions in the forward direction. As the muon density can vary between tens of muons per m[sup]2 close to the intersection of the shower axis with the ground to much less than one per m[sup]2 when far away, the necessary broad dynamic range is achieved by the simultaneous implementation of two acquisition modes in the read-out electronics: the binary mode, tuned to count single muons, and the ADC mode, suited to measure a high number of them. In this work, we present the end-to-end calibration of the muon detector modules: first, the SiPMs are calibrated by means of the binary channel, and then, the ADC channel is calibrated using atmospheric muons, detected in parallel to the shower data acquisition. The laboratory and field measurements performed to develop the implementation of the full calibration chain of both binary and ADC channels are presented and discussed. The calibration procedure is reliable to work with the high amount of channels in the UMD, which will be operated continuously, in changing environmental conditions, for several years.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, underground muon detector, detector calibration
Objavljeno v RUNG: 14.04.2021; Ogledov: 2569; Prenosov: 138
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