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21.
The measurements of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the depth of maximum shower development of Telescope Array Hybrid trigger events
H. Shin, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Telescope Array experiment is an ultra-high energy cosmic ray observatory located in Millard County, Utah, USA. The observatory consists of 3 fluorescence detector (FD) stations and 507 surface detectors (SD) that cover an area of ~700 km^2. Hybrid trigger is an external trigger system for the SD arrays that prompts the SD to perform data acquisition when an FD detects a shower-like event. In comparison with the SD autonomous trigger, hybrid trigger allows the SD to collect the data of an air shower that has primary energy below 10^18.5 eV, where the efficiency of SD autonomous trigger decreases rapidly. We present the measurements of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the depth of maximum shower development of hybrid trigger events observed from October 2010 to September 2014.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 745; Prenosov: 5
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22.
Cosmic-ray mass composition with the TA SD 12-year data
Y. Zhezher, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. It is dedicated to detect extensive air showers (EAS) in hybrid mode, both by measuring the shower’s longitudinal profile with fluorescence telescopes and their particle footprint on the ground from the surface detector (SD) array. While fluorescence telescopes can measure the most composition-sensitive characteristic of EAS, the depth of the shower maximum (\xmax), they also have the drawback of small duty cycle. This work aims to study the UHECR composition based solely on the surface detector data. For this task, a set of composition-sensitive observables obtained from the SD data is used in a machine-learning method -- the Boosted Decision Trees. We will present the results of the UHECR mass composition based on the 12-year data from the TA SD using this technique, and we will discuss of the possible systematics imposed by the hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, machine learning, boosted decision tree
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 637; Prenosov: 7
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23.
The ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray sky above 32 EeV viewed from the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. Biteau, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The region of the toe in the cosmic-ray spectrum, located at about 45 EeV by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, is of primary interest in the search for the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The suppression of the flux with increasing energy can be explained by the interaction of UHECRs with intergalactic photons, resulting in a shrinking of the observable universe, and/or by cut-offs in acceleration potential at the astrophysical sources, yielding a high-rigidity sample of single (or few) UHECR species around the toe. The predominance of foreground sources combined with reduced deflections could thus offer a path towards localizing ultra-high energy accelerators, through the study of UHECR arrival directions. In this contribution, we present the results of blind and astrophysically-motivated searches for anisotropies with data collected above 32 EeV during the first phase of the Pierre Auger Observatory, i.e. prior to the AugerPrime upgrade, for an exposure of over 120,000 km^2 yr sr. We have conducted model-independent searches for overdensities at small and intermediate angular scales, correlation studies with several astrophysical structures, and cross-correlation analyses with catalogs of candidate extragalactic sources. These analyses provide the most important evidence to date for anisotropy in UHECR arrival directions around the toe as measured from a single observatory.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, overdensities, hotspot, source correlation, cross-correlation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 677; Prenosov: 6
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24.
UHECR arrival directions in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors and nearby galaxies
A. di Matteo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The distribution of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray arrival directions appears to be nearly isotropic except for a dipole moment of order 6×(E/10 EeV) per cent. Nonetheless, at the highest energies, as the number of possible candidate sources within the propagation horizon and the magnetic deflections both shrink, smaller-scale anisotropies might be expected to emerge. On the other hand, the flux suppression reduces the statistics available for searching for such anisotropies. In this work, we consider two different lists of candidate sources: a sample of nearby starburst galaxies and the 2MRS catalog tracing stellar mass within 250 Mpc. We combine surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and the Telescope Array until 2019, and use them to test models in which UHECRs comprise an isotropic background and a foreground originating from the candidate sources and randomly deflected by magnetic fields. The free parameters of these models are the energy threshold, the signal fraction, and the search angular scale. We find a correlation between the arrival directions of 11.8%+5.0%−3.1% of cosmic rays detected with E≥38 EeV by Auger or with E≳49 EeV by TA and the position of nearby starburst galaxies on a 15.5∘+5.3∘−3.2∘ angular scale, with a 4.2σ post-trial significance, as well as a weaker correlation with the overall galaxy distribution.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, full-sky, starburst galaxies, source correlations, dipole
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 740; Prenosov: 4
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25.
Adjustments to Model Predictions of Depth of Shower Maximum and Signals at Ground Level using Hybrid Events of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. Vicha, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a new method to explore simple ad-hoc adjustments to the predictions of hadronic interaction models to improve their consistency with observed two-dimensional distributions of the depth of shower maximum, Xmax, and signal at ground level, as a function of zenith angle. The method relies on the assumption that the mass composition is the same at all zenith angles, while the atmospheric shower development and attenuation depend on composition in a correlated way. In the present work, for each of the three leading LHC-tuned hadronic interaction models, we allow a global shift ΔXmax of the predicted shower maximum, which is the same for every mass and energy, and a rescaling R_Had of the hadronic component at ground level which depends on the zenith angle. We apply the analysis to 2297 events reconstructed by both fluorescence and surface detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies 10^18.5−10^19.0 eV. Given the modeling assumptions made in this analysis, the best fit reaches its optimum value when shifting the Xmax predictions of hadronic interaction models to deeper values and increasing the hadronic signal at both extreme zenith angles. The resulting change in the composition towards heavier primaries alleviates the previously identified model deficit in the hadronic signal (commonly called the muon deficit), but does not remove it. Because of the size of the required corrections ΔXmax and R_Had and the large number of events in the sample, the statistical significance of the corrections is large, greater than 5σstat even for the combination of experimental systematic shifts within 1σsys that are the most favorable for the models.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ground array, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, Xmax, muon deficit, air-shower models
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 722; Prenosov: 6
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26.
Hotspot Update, and a new Excess of Events on the Sky Seen by the Telescope Array Experiment
J. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, the largest observatory studying ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere, has reported an excess in the arrival direction distribution for events with energies above 5.7×10^19 eV , called the hotspot. We report here the latest results of the TA hotspot using the most recent data measured by the TA surface detector array, which is more than doubled exposure since the first publication; the hotspot still exists with 3 sigma post-trial significance. By using an oversampling search with a 20∘-circle, similar to the study of the hotspot, we find an additional excess of events at slightly lower energies. The Perseus-Pisces supercluster lies at the location of the new excess. Assuming this structure is responsible for the excess, we conducted a statistical analysis to verify the correlation between observed events and the members of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, hotspot
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 669; Prenosov: 6
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27.
Reconstruction of air shower events measured by the surface detectors of the TAx4 experiment
H. Jeong, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been investigated since the first discovery of the UHECRs to solve the mystery of the extremely high-energy universe. The Telescope Array times 4 (TAx4) experiment, which currently consists of 257 Surface Detectors (SDs) and 2 Fluorescence Detector (FD) stations, had been built in Utah, USA in 2019. The TAx4 SDs observe secondary particles in an extensive air shower induced by the UHECR, and we reconstruct arrival direction and energy of the UHECR using the signal intensities and timings measured by the SDs. We present the reconstruction procedure of the UHECR and the preliminary energy spectrum above 10~EeV measured by the TAx4 SDs.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 695; Prenosov: 4
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28.
Analysis of TAx4 hybrid trigger and events
S. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Telescope Array is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray hybrid detector in the Northern hemisphere. While the TAx4 Surface Detector (TAx4 SD) has a duty cycle of ~ 100%, it should be noted that the TAx4 Fluorescence Detector (TAx4 FD) observes the full longitudinal profile of the cosmic ray air showers and therefore is able to determine their energies more accurately than TAx4 SD. In addition, observing cosmic rays in hybrid mode (“hybrid events”) has several advantages. Events seen in hybrid mode by the TAx4 FD and SD are used to establish the energy scale of the TAx4 SD. Moreover, the FD longitudinal profile is used to determine the mass composition of the primary comic ray particles, when the event geometries are well constrained by FD and SD measurements simultaneously. Despite large differences in the TAx4 SD/FD stand-alone performances, both detector types complement each other in measuring important physical quantities. Since August 2019, direction, energy, and Xmax can be obtained from reconstructing hybrid events. In this poster, preliminary analysis of TAx4 hybrid trigger and TAx4 hybrid events will be presented with focus on energy and Xmax observations.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, hybrid trigger, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy, Xmax
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 711; Prenosov: 6
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29.
Large-scale and multipolar anisotropies of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies above 4 EeV
R. de Almeida, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: More than half a century after the discovery of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), their origin is still an open question. The study of anisotropies in the arrival directions of such particles is an essential ingredient to solve this puzzle. We update our previous analysis of large-scale anisotropies observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory using the latest data collected before the AugerPrime upgrade. We select events with zenith angles up to 80 degrees, implying a sky coverage of 85%, and energies above 4 EeV, for which the surface detector of the Observatory is fully efficient. Dipolar and quadrupolar amplitudes are evaluated through a combined Fourier analysis of the event count rate in right ascension and azimuth. The analysis is performed in three energy bins with boundaries at 4, 8, 16 and 32 EeV and two additional cumulative bins with energies above 8 and 32 EeV. The most significant signal is a dipolar modulation in right ascension for energies above 8 EeV, as previously reported, with statistical significance of 6.6σ. Additionally, we report the measurements of the angular power spectrum for the same energy bins with the same dataset.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, dipole, quadropole, angular power spectrum, inclined showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 759; Prenosov: 4
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30.
Joint analysis of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays as measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Y. Tsunesada, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is of crucial importance to clarify their origin and acceleration mechanisms. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina and the Telescope Array (TA) in the US have reported their measurements of UHECR energy spectra observed in the southern and northern hemisphere, respectively. The region of the sky accessible to both Observatories ([−15,+24] degrees in declination) can be used to cross-calibrate the two spectra. The Auger-TA energy spectrum working group was organized in 2012 and has been working to understand the uncertainties in energy scale in both experiments, their systematic differences, and differences in the shape of the spectra. In previous works, we reported that there was an overall agreement of the energy spectra measured by the two observatories below 10 EeV while at higher energies, a remaining significant difference was observed in the common declination band. We revisit this issue to understand its origin by examining the systematic uncertainties, statistical effects, and other possibilities. We will also discuss the differences in the spectra in different declination bands and a new feature in the spectrum recently reported by the Auger Collaboration.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, anisotropy, declination dependence, fully sky
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.10.2023; Ogledov: 672; Prenosov: 6
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