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1.
Unraveling the Role of Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) Transporters in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance
Christina Paparokidou, 2014, končno poročilo o rezultatih raziskav

Opis: The yields of worldwide crop production are negatively affected by adverse environmental conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metal contamination and nutrient depletion in cultivated soils (Yan et al., 2013; Golldack et al., 2011; Yadav, 2010; Kobayashi and Nishizawa, 2012). This reduced crop production constitutes a major problem for food sustainability world-wide (Spiertz, 2013). Indeed, one of the major challenges for plant biotechnology will be to satisfy the increased demand for food on one hand, and to compensate for the loss of crop production on the other. Thus, the discovery of new plant genes that are able to cope with these conditions is critical and expected not only to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying crop abiotic stress, but also to pioneer genetic engineering strategies for improved crop productivity. The goal of this project was to identify novel genes belonging to the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) of plant membrane transporters with potential major roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance, namely to heavy metal, osmotic and iron deficiency stress. We selected three Arabidopsis thaliana MFS transporter genes, provisionally called MFS10, MFS11 and MFS12, which based on publicly available microarray data display specific expression patterns suggesting roles in plant tolerance to different abiotic stresses. RT-PCR analyses showed that in fact the MFS10 gene is highly induced by cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), salt and mannitol, while the MFS11 gene is upregulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and glucose, and the MFS12 gene by iron (Fe) deficiency, ABA and glucose. Furthermore, subcellular localization of fluorescent reporter fusions indicated that the MFS10 and MFS11 gene products are both plasma membrane localized transporters, while the encoded product of the MFS12 gene appears to be an endoplasmic reticulum localized transporter. Finally, reverse genetics using a null mutant allele for the MFS10 gene demonstrated that it functions as a regulator of plant responses to hyperosmotic (drought and salt) stress.
Ključne besede: Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), abiotic stress tolerance, heavy metals, osmotic stress, ABA stress, iron deficiency, T-DNA insertion lines, RT-PCR, confocal microscopy.
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.05.2022; Ogledov: 1347; Prenosov: 0
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Analysis of PM[sub](10), Pb, Cd, and Ni atmospheric concentrations during domestic heating season in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 2010 to 2019
Jasna Huremović, Sabina Žero, Erna Bubalo, Minela Dacić, Amila Čeliković, Irma Musić, Midheta Bašić, Nudžeima Huseinbašić, Katja Džepina, Merjema Cepić, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper examines atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) and related particle-phase toxic heavy metals Cd, Ni, and Pb during domestic heating seasons from 2010 to 2019 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In total, 242 daily PM10 samples were collected using medium and high volume air samplers. The mean daily PM10 mass concentration for all measurements is 75.16 μg/m3 (with the range of 28.77–149.00 μg/m3). Variation of ambient PM10 was observed throughout the study in different years. Hourly values for PM10 measurements during two heating seasons are also presented. Metal concentrations in PM10 were analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Quantities of atmospheric mass concentrations of studied trace metals were observed in the following order: Pb > Ni > Cd. The mean concentrations of metals varied with Pb showing the highest concentration (ranging from 1.38 to 234.00 ng/m3), Ni ranging from 0.87 to 42.43 ng/m3, and Cd showing the lowest concentration ranging from 0.26 to 10.09 ng/m3. The concentration of Pb and Cd in PM10 was strongly correlated, suggesting a common source or dependence of these metals in PM10 in Sarajevo. Bioaccessibility of metals in the synthetic gastric juice was also estimated. The quantities of average bioaccessible metal fractions in PM10 samples showed the following trend: Cd > Pb > Ni. The health risk assessment shows that the population of Sarajevo is at increased lifetime risk of experiencing cancer because of exposure to these Cd concentrations in PM10. In addition, parallel PM10 sampling on two samplers showed that obtained results are highly comparable.
Ključne besede: air, PM10, heavy metals, Sarajevo
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.04.2021; Ogledov: 2085; Prenosov: 0
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4.
OBJECTIVE AND PERCEIVED ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN THE TOWNS OF ZENICA AND MARIBOR : GROUP PROJECT FINAL REPORT
Ivana Pandža, Katja Belec, Matjaž Žvokelj, Merima Vrškić, Tajda Huber, Ula Urbas, 2020, elaborat, predštudija, študija

Opis: In this study, we measured the concentrations of specific heavy metals in the soil and sediment samples taken on different locations of the cities of Maribor (Slovenia), and Zenica (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The report also includes a questionnaire regarding the residents’ views about the environmental quality of the city they live in.
Ključne besede: Soil, sediments, heavy metals, AAS, pollution, questionnaire, environmental quality.
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.09.2020; Ogledov: 2683; Prenosov: 0
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5.
Under fungal attack on a metalliferous soil: ROS or not ROS? Insights from Silene paradoxa L. growing under copper stress
Cosimo Taiti, Elisabetta Giorni, Ilaria Colzi, Sara Pignattelli, Nadia Bazihizina, Antonella Buccianti, Simone Luti, Luigia Pazzagli, Stefano Mancuso, Cristina Gonnelli, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We investigated how the adaptation to metalliferous environments can influence the plant response to biotic stress. In a metallicolous and a non-metallicolous population of Silene paradoxa the induction of oxidative stress and the production of callose and volatiles were evaluated in the presence of copper and of the PAMP fungal protein cerato-platanin, separately and in combination. Our results showed incompatibility between the ordinary ROS-mediated response to fungal attack and the acquired mechanisms of preventing oxidative stress in the tolerant population. A similar situation was also demonstrated by the sensitive population growing in the presence of copper but, in this case, with a lack of certain responses, such as callose production. In addition, in terms of the joint behaviour of emitted volatiles, multivariate statistics showed that not only did the populations respond differently to the presence of copper or biotic stress, but also that the biotic and abiotic stresses interacted in different ways in the two populations. Our results demonstrated that the same incompatibility of hyperaccumulators in ROS-mediated biotic stress signals also seemed to be exhibited by the excluder metallophyte, but without the advantage of being able to rely on the elemental defence for plant protection from natural enemies.
Ključne besede: Biotic interactions Callose Heavy metals Oxidative stress VOCs
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.04.2020; Ogledov: 3330; Prenosov: 0
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6.
Heavy metal analysis with in-situ prepared copper film electrode as a tool for environmental monitoring
Nana Ivana Hrastnik, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: Monitoring and measuring heavy metals in the environment is of great importance and requires sensitive and reliable analytical techniques capable of detecting trace level concentrations. Nowadays, measurements of heavy metals are usually performed using sophisticated and expensive instrumental techniques, such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) etc. In this aspect, advanced electroanalytical (stripping) techniques represent a favourable alternative, facilitating sensitive and selective measurements of various analytes using relatively simple, portable and non-expensive instrumentation. This work is an investigation of novel copper-based electrodes for measuring trace levels of selected heavy metal ions, i.e. mercury(II), lead(II), tin(IV) and nickel(II). The methods of choice were anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) in combination with the in-situ prepared copper film electrode (CuFE) for measuring low concentrations of mercury(II) and lead(II) (simultaneously) and tin(IV) in the test solutions and adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV) for determination of nickel(II). Metal-film electrodes are regularly employed in electrochemical stripping analysis due to their simple fabrication and surface regeneration. The newly developed CuFE appears to be a cheaper alternative to gold-based electrodes with several attractive electroanalytical characteristics, i.e. with low limits of detection (LOD), good repeatability and favourable linear response.
Ključne besede: Copper film electrode, anodic stripping voltammetry, adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry, heavy metals, environment.
Objavljeno v RUNG: 12.09.2017; Ogledov: 4840; Prenosov: 266
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,78 MB)

7.
Water pollution in the impact areas of the two abandoned metal ore mines in Slovenia and Portugal
Doroteja Gošar, 2015, diplomsko delo

Opis: Mining in both Mežica zinc and lead mine and in Freixeda gold mine caused negative environmental impacts. The main objective of the thesis was to study negative impacts on water quality through time. During the process various literature sources were studied, field work and chemical analyses were performed and interpretation of results with different statistical methods was done. In Mežica mine the quality of surface water has improved through time and nowadays the Meža River is of good quality. The biggest change was shown in the case of Helena rivulet, where Pb, Zn and Cd concentration between 2002 and 2015 lowered below limit values. Preventive measures and treatment of waste deposits had positive impact on water quality and based on standards for drinking water, groundwater from mine could be a source of drinking water. In Freixeda stream concentration of heavy metals lowered through time and in 2015 values of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in Freixeda stream before confluence with the Tua River were below the limit value. An exception is the increased value of As, which was caused by acid mine drainage (AMD) inflow from the mine, but also by the discharge from confined aquifer to Freixeda stream. Treatment of AMD was efficient for a while but due to lack of maintenance it is no longer effective.
Ključne besede: Abandoned mines, heavy metals, pollution, Mežica mine, Freixeda mine
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.10.2015; Ogledov: 5951; Prenosov: 320
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,82 MB)
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