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Chemistry of the iron-chlorine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production utilizing industrial waste heat
Matjaž Valant, Uroš Luin, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This research presents an inventive thermochemical cycle that utilizes a reaction between iron and HCl acid for hydrogen production. The reaction occurs spontaneously at room temperature, yielding hydrogen and a FeCl2 solution as a by-product. Exploring the thermal decomposition of the FeCl2 by-product revealed that, at conditions suitable for utilization of low-temperature industrial waste heat (250 °C), chlorine gas formation can be circumvented. Instead, the resulting by-product is HCl, which is readily soluble in water, facilitating direct reuse in subsequent cycles. The utilization of low-temperature industrial heat not only optimizes resource utilization and reduces operational costs but also aligns with environmentally sustainable production processes. From the kinetic studies the activation energy was calculated to be 45 kJ/mol and kinetics curves were constructed. They showed significant kinetics at room temperature and above but rapid decrease towards lower temperatures. This is important to consider during real-scale technology optimization. The theoretical overall energy efficiency of the cycle, with 100% and 70% heat recuperation, was calculated at 68.8% and 44.8%, respectively. In practical implementation, considering the efficiency of DRI iron reduction technology and free waste heat utilization, the cycle achieved a 41.7% efficiency. Beyond its energy storage capabilities, the Iron-chlorine cycle addresses safety concerns associated with large-scale hydrogen storage, eliminating self-discharge, reducing land usage, and employing cost-effective storage materials. This technology not only facilitates seasonal energy storage but also establishes solid-state energy reserves, making it suitable for balancing grid demands during winter months using excess renewable energy accumulated in the summer.
Ključne besede: chemical cycles, hydrogen production, thermal decomposition, reaction kinetics, iron, chlorine
Objavljeno v RUNG: 12.01.2024; Ogledov: 999; Prenosov: 39
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,80 MB)
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Plastic Waste Precursor-Derived Fluorescent Carbon and Construction of Ternary FCs@CuO@TiO2 Hybrid Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production and Sensing Application
Akansha Metha, Rayees Ahmad Rather, Blaž Belec, Sandra Gardonio, Ming Fang, Matjaž Valant, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A sustainable nexus between renewable energy production and plastic abatement is imperative for overall sustainable development. In this regard, this study aims to develop a cheaper and environmentally friendly nexus between plastic waste management, wastewater treatment, and renewable hydrogen production. Fluorescent carbon (FCs) were synthesized from commonly used LDPE (low-density polyethylene) by a facile hydrothermal approach. Optical absorption study revealed an absorption edge around 300 nm and two emission bands at 430 and 470 nm. The morphological analysis showed two different patterns of FCs, a thin sheet with 2D morphology and elongated particles. The sheet-shaped particles are 0.5 μm in size, while as for elongated structures, the size varies from 0.5 to 1 μm. The as-synthesized FCs were used for the detection of metal ions (reference as Cu2+ ions) in water. The fluorescence intensity of FCs versus Cu2+ ions depicts its upright analytical ability with a limit of detection (LOD) reaching 86.5 nM, which is considerably lesser than earlier reported fluorescence probes derived from waste. After the sensing of Cu2+, the as-obtained FCs@Cu2+ was mixed with TiO2 to form a ternary FCs@CuO@TiO2 composite. This ternary composite was utilized for photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under 1.5 AM solar light irradiation. The H2 evolution rate was found to be ~1800 μmolg−1, which is many folds compared to the bare FCs. Moreover, the optimized FCs@CuO@TiO2 ternary composite showed a photocurrent density of ~2.40 mA/cm2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, in 1 M Na2SO4 solution under the illumination of simulated solar light. The achieved photocurrent density corresponds to the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of ~0.95%. The efficiency is due to the fluorescence nature of FCs and the synergistic effect of CuO embedded in TiO2, which enhances the optical absorption of the composite by reaching the bandgap of 2.44 eV, apparently reducing the recombination rate, which was confirmed by optoelectronic, structural, and spectroscopic characterizations.
Ključne besede: plastic waste, fluorescent carbo, sensing of metal ions, photocatalytic hydrogen production
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.02.2022; Ogledov: 1991; Prenosov: 44
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,98 MB)

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