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1.
Observation of Variations in Cosmic Ray Shower Rates During Thunderstorms and Implications for Large-Scale Electric Field Changes
R. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: This work presents the first observation by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) of the effect of thunderstorms on the development of the cosmic ray showers. Observations of variations in the cosmic ray showers, using the TASD, allows us to study the electric field inside thunderstorms on a large scale without dealing with all the limitation of narrow exposure in time and space using balloons and aircraft detectors. In this work, observations of variations in the cosmic ray shower intensity (ΔN/N) using the TASD, was studied and found to be on average at the (1−2)% level. These observations where found to be both negative and positive in polarity. They were found to be correlated with lightning but also with thunderstorms. The size of the footprint of these variations on the ground ranged from (4-24) km in diameter and lasted for 10s of minutes. Dependence of (ΔN/N) on the electric field inside thunderstorms, in this work, is derived from CORSIKA simulations.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, shower profile, lightning, atmospheric electric fields
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 421; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,65 MB)
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2.
Study on multi-ELVES in the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Vásquez Ramírez, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Since 2013, the four sites of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory record ELVES with a dedicated trigger. These UV light emissions are correlated to distant lightning strikes. The length of recorded traces has been increased from 100 μs (2013), to 300 μs (2014-16), to 900 μs (2017-present), to progressively extend the observation of the light emission towards the vertical of the causative lightning and beyond. A large fraction of the observed events shows double ELVES within the time window, and, in some cases, even more complex structures are observed. The nature of the multi-ELVES is not completely understood but may be related to the different types of lightning in which they are originated. For example, it is known that Narrow Bipolar Events can produce double ELVES, and Energetic In-cloud Pulses, occurring between the main negative and upper positive charge layer of clouds, can induce double and even quadruple ELVES in the ionosphere. This report shows the seasonal and daily dependence of the time gap, amplitude ratio, and correlation between the pulse widths of the peaks in a sample of 1000+ multi-ELVES events recorded during the period 2014-20. The events have been compared with data from other satellite and ground-based sensing devices to study the correlation of their properties with lightning observables such as altitude and polarity.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, UV light, multi-ELVES, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 536; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,25 MB)
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3.
Insight Into Lightning Initiation via Downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash Observations at Telescope Array
J. Remington, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Due to the difficulty of direct measurement of the thunderstorm environment, in particular the electric field strengths, the initial stages of lightning breakdown remain mysterious. The 1994 discovery of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and their implications for megaVolt potentials within thunderclouds has proved to be a valuable source of information about the breakdown process. The Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) --- a 700 km^2 scintillator array in Western Utah, U.S.A --- coupled with a lightning mapping array, fast sferic (field change) sensor and broadband interferometer, has provided unique insight into the properties of this energetic radiation and of lightning initiation in general. In particular, microsecond-scale timing comparisons have clearly established that downward TGFs occur during strong initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) of downward negative cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes. In turn, the IBPs are produced by streamer-based fast negative breakdown. Investigations into downward TGFs with the TASD have significantly evolved with recent upgrades to lightning instrumentation. A second state-of-the-art broadband interferometer allows high-resolution stereo observation of lightning development. A high-speed optical video camera, set to be deployed in Spring 2021, will allow simultaneous observation of the visual component of lightning responsible for TGF production. Finally, a suite of ground based static electric field mills will provide new information on the large-scale properties of the thunderstorms in which downward TGFs arise. In this talk, we present the most recent TGF observations from the Telescope Array.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, gamma-rays, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.10.2023; Ogledov: 452; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,76 MB)
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4.
Downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes at the Pierre Auger Observatory?
R. Colalillo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the Pierre Auger Observatory, designed primarily to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, phenomena related to atmospheric electricity are also observed. Particularly, events have been detected with the surface detector, characterized by long-lasting signals (tens of microseconds) and event footprints much larger (up to 200 km2) than those produced by the highest energy cosmic rays. Moreover, some of them appear to be accompanied by smaller events occurring in the same area within about 1 ms and probably produced by the same phenomenon. A previously reported correlation with the World Wide Lightning Location Network, as well as the observation of very low-altitude clouds, confirm that such events are related to thunderstorms. An ad-hoc reconstruction points to high-energy particles being produced very close to the ground, suggesting that they originate from electrons accelerated to relativistic energies in strong electric fields inside low clouds, as is the case for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes above thunderstorms. A clear explanation of the observed phenomenon is hindered by two facts. One is that the rate of such events, detected serendipitously, is very small (less than 2 events/year) and decreases further after optimization of the surface detector trigger for low-energy shower-events. The second is that most events show a puzzling lack of signals in the central part of the footprint. We have studied in detail both effects and will present such studies here. We developed a strategy for a dedicated trigger to enhance the detection efficiency for these events associated with atmospheric-electricity events.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, electrons, gamma-ray flashes, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 505; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,42 MB)
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5.
Observations of the origin of downward terrestrial gamma-ray flashes
J. W. Belz, P. R. Krehbiel, J. Remington, M. A. Stanley, R. U. Abbasi, R. LeVon, W. Rison, D. Rodeheffer, T. Abu-Zayyad, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this paper we report the first close, high‐resolution observations of downward‐directed terrestrial gamma‐ray flashes (TGFs) detected by the large‐area Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory, obtained in conjunction with broadband VHF interferometer and fast electric field change measurements of the parent discharge. The results show that the TGFs occur during strong initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) in the first few milliseconds of negative cloud‐to‐ground and low‐altitude intracloud flashes and that the IBPs are produced by a newly identified streamer‐based discharge process called fast negative breakdown. The observations indicate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) responsible for producing the TGFs are initiated by embedded spark‐like transient conducting events (TCEs) within the fast streamer system and potentially also by individual fast streamers themselves. The TCEs are inferred to be the cause of impulsive sub‐pulses that are characteristic features of classic IBP sferics. Additional development of the avalanches would be facilitated by the enhanced electric field ahead of the advancing front of the fast negative breakdown. In addition to showing the nature of IBPs and their enigmatic sub‐pulses, the observations also provide a possible explanation for the unsolved question of how the streamer to leader transition occurs during the initial negative breakdown, namely, as a result of strong currents flowing in the final stage of successive IBPs, extending backward through both the IBP itself and the negative streamer breakdown preceding the IBP.
Ključne besede: terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, lightning, fast breakdown, initial breakdown pulse, atmospheric electricity, transient conducting events
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.02.2021; Ogledov: 2310; Prenosov: 21
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6.
The bursts of high energy events observed by the telescope array surface detector
R.U. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is designed to detect air showers induced by ultra high energy cosmic rays. The TA ground Surface particle Detector (TASD) observed several short-time bursts of air shower like events. These bursts are not likely due to chance coincidence between single shower events. The expectation of chance coincidence is less than 10^-4 for five-year's observation. We checked the correlation between these bursts of events and lightning data, and found evidence for correlations in timing and position. Some features of the burst events are similar to those of a normal cosmic ray air shower, and some are not. On this paper, we report the observed bursts of air shower like events and their correlation with lightning.
Ključne besede: High energy radiation, Lightning, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash
Objavljeno v RUNG: 30.04.2020; Ogledov: 2466; Prenosov: 0
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7.
Gamma Ray Showers Observed at Ground Level in Coincidence With Downward Lightning Leaders
R.U. Abbasi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Bursts of gamma ray showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700‐km^2 cosmic ray observatory located in southwestern Utah, USA. In data collected between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations showing the structure and temporal development of three shower‐producing flashes were obtained with a 3‐D lightning mapping array, and electric field change measurements were obtained for an additional seven flashes, in both cases colocated with the TASD. National Lightning Detection Network information was also used throughout. The showers arrived in a sequence of 2–5 short‐duration (≤10 μs) bursts over time intervals of several hundred microseconds and originated at an altitude of ≃3–5 km above ground level during the first 1–2 ms of downward negative leader breakdown at the beginning of cloud‐to‐ground lightning flashes. The shower footprints, associated waveforms and the effect of atmospheric propagation indicate that the showers consist primarily of downward‐beamed gamma radiation. This has been supported by GEANT simulation studies, which indicate primary source fluxes of ≃10^12–10^14 photons for 16° half‐angle beams. We conclude that the showers are terrestrial gamma ray flashes, similar to those observed by satellites, but that the ground‐based observations are more representative of the temporal source activity and are also more sensitive than satellite observations, which detect only the most powerful terrestrial gamma ray flashes.
Ključne besede: gamma rays, lightning, gamma ray bursts, surface detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 30.04.2020; Ogledov: 2952; Prenosov: 0
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8.
9.
Lightning Detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Julian Rautenberg, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Auger Engineering Radio Array, an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory with antennas in the MHz range, requires to monitor the atmospheric conditions, which have a large influence on the radio emission of air showers. In particular, amplified signals up to an order of magnitude have been detected as an affect of thunderstorms. For a more detailed investigation and more generally, for detecting thunderstorms, a new lightning detection system has been installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition, an electric-field mill measures the field strength on ground level at the antenna array. With these measurements, data periods affected by thunderstorms can be identified. Additionally, a lightning trigger for the water-Cherenkov detectors was developed to read out individual stations when a lightning was detected nearby. With these data, a possible correlation between the formation of lightning and cosmic rays can be investigated even at low energies of about 10[sup]15 eV. The structure and functionality of the lightning detection are described and first data analyses are shown.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Auger Engineering Radio Array, atmospheric monitoring, lightning detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.03.2016; Ogledov: 4354; Prenosov: 198
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,10 MB)

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