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1.
Astrophysical interpretation of energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays as measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Eleonora Guido, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The combined interpretation of the spectrum and composition measurements plays a key role in the quest for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The Pierre Auger Observatory, thanks to its huge exposure, provides the most precise measurement of the energy spectrum of UHECRs and the most reliable information on their composition, exploiting the distributions of the depth of maximum of the showers in the atmosphere. A combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to the spectrum and mass composition measurements is used to evaluate the constraining power of the data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory on the source properties. We find that our data across the “ankle” feature are well reproduced if two extragalactic populations of sources are considered, one emitting a very soft spectrum which dominates the region below the ankle, and the other taking over at energies above the ankle, with an intermediate mixed composition, a hard spectrum and a low rigidity cutoff. Interestingly, similar results can also be obtained if the medium-mass contribution at lower energy is provided by an additional galactic component.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR mass composition
Objavljeno v RUNG: 24.01.2024; Ogledov: 190; Prenosov: 7
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2.
Investigation of multi-messenger properties of FR0 radio galaxy emitted ultra-high energy cosmic rays
Jon Paul Lundquist, Lukas Merten, Serguei Vorobiov, Margot Boughelilba, Albert Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, F. Tavecchio, G. Bonnoli, C. Righi, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Low luminosity Fanaroff-Riley type 0 (FR0) radio galaxies are amongst potential contributors to the observed flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Due to FR0s’ much higher abundance in the local universe than more powerful radio galaxies (e.g., about five times more ubiquitous at redshifts z≤0.05 than FR1s), they could provide a substantial fraction of the total UHECR energy density. In the presented work, we determine the mass composition and energy spectrum of UHECRs emitted by FR0 sources by fitting simulation results from the CRPropa3 framework to the recently published Pierre Auger Observatory data. The resulting emission spectral characteristics (spectral indices, rigidity cutoffs) and elemental group fractions are compared to the Auger results. The FR0 simulations include the approximately isotropic distribution of FR0s extrapolated from the measured FR0 galaxy properties and various extragalactic magnetic field configurations, including random and large-scale structured fields. We predict the fluxes of secondary photons and neutrinos produced during UHECR propagation through cosmic photon backgrounds. The presented results allow for probing the properties of the FR0 radio galaxies as cosmic-ray sources using observational high-energy multi-messenger data.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, UHECRs, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR propagation, UHECR interactions, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR mass composition, UHECR sources, Fanaroff-Riley (FR) radio galaxies, FR0 galaxies
Objavljeno v RUNG: 24.01.2024; Ogledov: 243; Prenosov: 5
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3.
Combined fit to the spectrum and composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory including magnetic horizon effects
Juan Manuel González, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays can be interpreted assuming the presence of two extragalactic source populations, one dominating the flux at energies above a few EeV and the other below. To fit the data ignoring magnetic field effects, the high-energy population needs to accelerate a mixture of nuclei with very hard spectra, at odds with the approximate �−2 shape expected from diffusive shock acceleration. The presence of turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields in the region between the closest sources and the Earth can significantly modify the observed CR spectrum with respect to that emitted by the sources, reducing the flux of low-rigidity particles that reach the Earth. We here take into account this magnetic horizon effect in the combined fit of the spectrum and shower depth distributions, exploring the possibility that a spectrum for the high-energy population sources with a shape closer to �^(−2) be able to explain the observations. We find that a large inter-source separation �s and a large magnetic field RMS amplitude within the Local Supercluster region, such that �rms ≃ 100 nG (40 Mpc/�s) √︁25 kpc/�coh, are needed to interpret the data within this scenario, where �coh is the magnetic field coherence length.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, mass composition, extragalactic magnetic fiels
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 198; Prenosov: 6
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4.
Studies of the UHECR Mass Composition and Hadronic Interactions with the FD and SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J.M. Carceller, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: With data on the depth of maximum Xmax collected during more than a decade of operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we report on the inferences on the mass composition of UHECRs in the energy range E = 10[sup]17.2 − 10[sup]19.6 eV and on the measurements of the proton-air cross section for energies up to 10[sup]18.5 eV. We also present the results on Xmax obtained using the information on the particle arrival times recorded by the SD stations allowing us to extend the Xmax measurements up to 10[sup]20 eV. The inferences on mass composition, in particular using the data of the SD, are subject to systematic uncertainties due to uncertainties in the description of hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies. We discuss this problem with respect to the properties of the muonic component of extensive air-showers as derived from the SD data.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, EAS electromagnetic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR mass composition, UHECR hadronic interactions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.10.2023; Ogledov: 519; Prenosov: 8
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5.
Results from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Esteban Roulet, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Some of the results on ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that have been obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. These include measurements of the spectrum, composition and anisotropies. Possible astrophysical scenarios that account for these results are discussed.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR anisotropies, UHECR mass composition
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.10.2023; Ogledov: 525; Prenosov: 5
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6.
Constraining the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays across and above the ankle with the spectrum and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Abdul Halim, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work we present the interpretation of the energy spectrum and mass composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Collaboration above 6 × 10[sup]17 eV. We use an astrophysical model with two extragalactic source populations to model the hardening of the cosmic-ray flux at around 5 × 10[sup]18 eV (the so-called "ankle" feature) as a transition between these two components. We find our data to be well reproduced if sources above the ankle emit a mixed composition with a hard spectrum and a low rigidity cutoff. The component below the ankle is required to have a very soft spectrum and a mix of protons and intermediate-mass nuclei. The origin of this intermediate-mass component is not well constrained and it could originate from either Galactic or extragalactic sources. To the aim of evaluating our capability to constrain astrophysical models, we discuss the impact on the fit results of the main experimental systematic uncertainties and of the assumptions about quantities affecting the air shower development as well as the propagation and redshift distribution of injected ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs).
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, UHECR propagation, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR mass composition
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.08.2023; Ogledov: 532; Prenosov: 6
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7.
Dark matter search in dwarf irregular galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
Viviana Gammaldi, Judit Pérez Romero, Javier Coronado-Blázquez, Mattia di Mauro, Ekaterina Karukes, Miguel Sánchez-Conde, Paolo Salucci, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We analyze 11 years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data corresponding to the sky regions of seven dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies. DIrrs are dark matter (DM)-dominated systems, proposed as interesting targets for the indirect search of DM with gamma rays. The galaxies represent interesting cases with a strong disagreement between the density profiles (core versus cusp) inferred from observations and numerical simulations. In this work, we addressed the problem by considering two different DM profiles, based on both the fit to the rotation curve (in this case, a Burkert cored profile) and results from N-body cosmological simulations (i.e., Navarro-Frenk-White cuspy profile). We also include halo substructure in our analysis, which is expected to boost the DM signal by a factor of 10 in halos such as those of dIrrs. For each DM model and dIrr, we create a spatial template of the expected DM-induced gamma-ray signal to be used in the analysis of Fermi-LAT data. No significant emission is detected from any of the targets in our sample. Thus, we compute upper limits on the DM annihilation cross section versus mass parameter space. Among the seven dIrrs, we find IC10 and NGC6822 to yield the most stringent individual constraints, independently of the adopted DM profile. We also produce combined DM limits for all objects in the sample, which turn out to be dominated by IC10 for all DM models and annihilation channels, i.e., b¯b, τ+τ−, and W+W−. The strongest constraints are obtained for b¯b and are at the level of <σv>∼7×10−26 cm3 s−1 at mχ ∼ 6 GeV. Though these limits are a factor of ∼3 higher than the thermal relic cross section at low weakly interacting massive particles masses, they are independent from and complementary to those obtained by means of other targets.
Ključne besede: Dark matter, gamma-ray astronomy, galaxies, astronomical masses and mass distributions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.01.2023; Ogledov: 829; Prenosov: 0
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8.
Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Serguei Vorobiov, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Opis: Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are mostly protons and heavier nuclei arriving on Earth from space and producing particle cascades in the atmosphere, ”extensive air showers”. As of today, the most precise and high-statistics data set of the rare (≤ 1 particle per sq.km per year above 10[sup]19 eV) UHECR events is obtained by the Pierre Auger Observatory, a large area (~3000 sq.km) hybrid detector in Argentina. The Auger Observatory determines the arrival directions and energies of the primary UHECR particles and provides constraints for their masses. In this talk, I will present and discuss the recent results, including the detailed measurements of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum features, the study of the anisotropies in the UHECR arrival directions at large and intermediate angular scales, the multi-messenger searches, and the inferred cosmic-ray mass composition. Finally, the progress of the current upgrade of the Observatory, "AugerPrime" which is aimed at improving the sensitivity to the mass composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, will be presented.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR mass composition, energy spectrum, anisotropies, AugerPrime upgrade
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.12.2022; Ogledov: 1148; Prenosov: 7
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9.
Molekularna karakterizacija lebdećih čestica slobodne troposfere sa Opservatorija Pico planine
Katja Džepina, Claudio Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Swarup China, B. Zhang, R. Chris Owen, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, Sumit Kumar, J. A. Perlinger, 2017, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Long-range transported free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the PMO (38°28’15’’N, 28°24’14’’W; 2225 m amsl) on Pico Island of the Azores in the North Atlantic. Filter-collected aerosol during summer 2012 was analysed for organic and elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average aerosol ambient concentration was 0.9 µg m-3. Organic aerosol contributed the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulphate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol was positively correlated with on-line aerosol measurements of black carbon, light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) from 9/24 and 9/25 samples collected during a pollution event were analysed with ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR MS. FLEXPART analysis showed the air masses were very aged (>12 days). ~4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra between m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. WSOC have an average O/C of ~0.45, relatively low compared to O/C of other aged aerosol, which might be the result of evaporation and fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART and MODIS fire counts. This was confirmed with WSOC biomass burning markers and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by SEM. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of biomass burning phenolic species suggests that the aerosol collected at Pico had undergone cloud processing. The air masses on 9/25 were more aged (~15 days) and influenced by marine emissions, as indicated by organosulphates and species characteristic for marine aerosol (e.g. fatty acids). The change in air masses for the two samples was corroborated by the changes in ozone, ethane, propane, morphology of particles, as well as by FLEXPART. In this presentation we will presents the first detailed molecular characterization of free tropospheric aged aerosol intercepted at the PMO.
Ključne besede: Atmospheric aerosol, Free troposphere, Mass spectrometry, Pico mountain observatory
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.05.2021; Ogledov: 2385; Prenosov: 0
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