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1.
Field evaluation of low-cost PM sensors (Purple Air PA-II) under variable urban air quality conditions, in Greece
Iasonas Stavroulas, Georgios Grivas, Panagiotis Michalopoulos, Eleni Liakakou, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Kyriaki Maria Fameli, Nikolaos Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Recent advances in particle sensor technologies have led to an increased development and utilization of low-cost, compact, particulate matter (PM) monitors. These devices can be deployed in dense monitoring networks, enabling an improved characterization of the spatiotemporal variability in ambient levels and exposure. However, the reliability of their measurements is an important prerequisite, necessitating rigorous performance evaluation and calibration in comparison to reference-grade instrumentation. In this study, field evaluation of Purple Air PA-II devices (low-cost PM sensors) is performed in two urban environments and across three seasons in Greece, in comparison to different types of reference instruments. Measurements were conducted in Athens (the largest city in Greece with nearly four-million inhabitants) for five months spanning over the summer of 2019 and winter/spring of 2020 and in Ioannina, a medium-sized city in northwestern Greece (100,000 inhabitants) during winter/spring 2019–2020. The PM2.5 sensor output correlates strongly with reference measurements (R2 = 0.87 against a beta attenuation monitor and R2 = 0.98 against an optical reference-grade monitor). Deviations in the sensor-reference agreement are identified as mainly related to elevated coarse particle concentrations and high ambient relative humidity. Simple and multiple regression models are tested to compensate for these biases, drastically improving the sensor’s response. Large decreases in sensor error are observed after implementation of models, leading to mean absolute percentage errors of 0.18 and 0.12 for the Athens and Ioannina datasets, respectively. Overall, a quality-controlled and robustly evaluated low-cost network can be an integral component for air quality monitoring in a smart city. Case studies are presented along this line, where a network of PA-II devices is used to monitor the air quality deterioration during a peri-urban forest fire event affecting the area of Athens and during extreme wintertime smog events in Ioannina, related to wood burning for residential heating.
Ključne besede: particulate matter, PM2.5, air quality, low-cost sensors, optical particle counter
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 156; Prenosov: 3
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2.
Performance analysis of high-spectral-resolution lidar with/without laser seeding technique for measuring aerosol optical properties
Fengjia Gao, Fei Gao, Gaipan Li, Fan Yang, Li Wang, Song Yuehui, Dengxin Hua, Samo Stanič, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: High-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) is a powerful tool for aerosol measurements. With/without laser seeding technique in the transmitted laser, the HSRL can be distinguished as the single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) HSRL or the multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) HSRL, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with periodic transmittance function can be used as the spectral discriminator in both the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL. To in-depth knowledge of the respective advantages of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL for measuring aerosol optical properties, the working principle, optimal parameter setting, and detection performance of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL are analyzed and discussed in detail, respectively. The working principle of the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL indicate that the effective transmittance of MZI is the important parameter of data retrieval, the main source of retrieval uncertainties, and the key factor of MZI optical path difference (OPD) settings. To ensure that the MZI can achieve the preferable separation for aerosol Mie scattering signals and molecular Rayleigh scattering signals, the optimal OPDs of MZI are set at 165 mm and 1000 mm in the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL from the aspects of the effective transmittance of MZI and the spectral discrimination ratio (SDR). Besides, to analyze the influence of frequency difference and divergence angle for the detection performance of HSRL, the effective transmittance of MZI and SDR are simulated and the results show that the MLM HSRL has higher requirements for the environmental parameters and the echo beam collimation than the SLM HSRL. Moreover, the HSRLs with SLM and MLM transmitted lasers are constructed in Xi'an for measuring aerosol optical properties. The preliminary measurement results show that the range square corrected signal (RSCS) of Rayleigh channel is smaller than that of Mie channel in both the SLM HSRL and MLM HSRL, while the difference between RSCS of Rayleigh channel and RSCS of Mie channel in the SLM HSRL is larger than that in the MLM HSRL, and the detection range of the SLM HSRL is lower than that of the MLM HSRL.
Ključne besede: aerosol optical properties, high-spectral-resolution lidar, single-longitudinal-mode, multi-longitudinal-mode, spectral discrimination ratio
Objavljeno v RUNG: 28.02.2024; Ogledov: 496; Prenosov: 2
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3.
Optical properties and simple forcing efficiency of the organic aerosols and black carbon emitted by residential wood burning in rural Central Europe
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Martin Rigler, Matej Ogrin, Baseerat Romshoo, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. Recent years have seen an increase in the use of wood for energy production of over 30 %, and this trend is expected to continue due to the current energy crisis and geopolitical instability. At present, residential wood burning (RWB) is one of the most important sources of organic aerosols (OA) and black carbon (BC). While BC is recognized for its large light absorption cross-section, the role of OA in light absorption is still under evaluation due to their heterogeneous composition and source-dependent optical properties. Studies that characterize wood-burning aerosol emissions in Europe typically focus on urban and background sites and only cover BC properties. However, RWB is more prevalent in rural areas, and the present scenario indicates that an improved understanding of the RWB aerosol optical properties and their subsequent connection to climate impacts is necessary for rural areas. We have characterized atmospheric aerosol particles from a central European rural site during wintertime in the village of Retje in Loški Potok, Slovenia, from 01.12.2017 to 07.03.2018. The village experienced extremely high aerosol concentrations produced by RWB and near-ground temperature inversion. The isolated location of the site and the substantial local emissions made it an ideal laboratory-like place for characterizing RWB aerosols with low influence from non-RWB sources under ambient conditions. The mean mass concentrations of OA and BC were 34.8 µg m-3 (max = 271.8 µg m-3) and 3.1 µg m-3 (max = 24.3 µg m-3), respectively. The mean total particle number concentration (10–600 nm) was 9.9 x 103 particles cm-3 (max = 53.5 x 103 particles cm-3). The mean total light absorption coefficient at 370 nm and 880 nm measured by an Aethalometer AE33 were 122.8 Mm-1 and 15.3 Mm-1 and had maximum values of 1103.9 Mm-1 and 179.1 Mm-1, respectively. The aerosol concentrations and absorption coefficients measured during the campaign in Loški Potok were significantly larger than those reported values for several urban areas in the region with larger populations and extent of aerosol sources. Here, considerable contributions from brown carbon (BrC) to the total light absorption were identified, reaching up to 60 % and 48 % in the near UV (370 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelengths. These contributions are up to three times higher than values reported for other sites impacted by wood-burning emissions. The calculated mass absorption cross-section and the absorption Ångström exponent for RWB OA were MACOA, 370 nm= 2.4 m2 g-1, and AAEBrC, 370–590 nm= 3.9, respectively. Simple forcing efficiency (SFE) calculations were performed as a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the climate impact of the RWB aerosols produced at the study site by integrating the optical properties measured during the campaign. The SFE results show a considerable forcing capacity from the local RWB aerosols, with a high sensitivity to OA absorption properties and a more substantial impact over bright surfaces like snow, typical during the coldest season with higher OA emissions from RWB. Our study's results are highly significant regarding air pollution, optical properties, and climate impact. The findings suggest that there may be an underestimation of RWB emissions in rural Europe and that further investigation is necessary.
Ključne besede: wood-burning aerosols, optical characterization, black carbon, rural areas
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.01.2024; Ogledov: 666; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,99 MB)
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4.
Aerosol complex refractive index retrieval in the Paris urban area and its forested surroundings during the ACROSS field campaign : variability and constraint for direct radiative effect estimation in regional models
Ludovico Di Antonio, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The complex refractive index (CRI) is one of the key parameter driving aerosol spectral optical properties and direct radiative effects (DRE). Its value and spectral variation under different conditions, such as anthropogenic− and biogenic−dominated environments and anthropogenic−biogenic mixing situations, remains not fully understood. As a consequence, oversimplified representations of aerosol optical properties are generally used in climate models. Therefore, measurements of aerosol CRI in different environments and their inclusion in models are needed. The field observations from the ACROSS campaign, performed in June-July 2022 in the Ile de France region, are used in this study to deepen the knowledge of aerosol optical properties, aiming to improve the aerosol representation in the CHIMERE model and provide the best constraint for DRE simulations. Measurements obtained both at the Paris city center and the Rambouilllet rural forest sites during ACROSS are considered, in order to explore the CRI variability from anthropogenic−dominated to biogenic−dominated environments, including anthropogenic−biogenic mixing situations. The CRI retrievals at seven different wavelengths, performed by combining the Mie theory with optical and size distribution measurements, are representative of different atmospheric conditions, aerosol loadings as well as type and chemical compositions. In fact, the June-July 2022 period was characterized by highly diversified weather conditions: 1) two strong heatwaves, promoting SOA build-up and favoring the export of the Paris pollution plume towards the forest site; 2) Saharan dust events transported from the upper atmosphere to the ground; 3) biomass burning episode; 4) periods with reduced anthropogenic influence. The CRI retrievals under these different conditions and their link to particulate chemical composition is investigated. Hence, the CRI dataset presented here constitutes a unique dataset from which models can benefit to validate and constrain simulations and DRE estimations, under both urban and biogenic emissions influence. These data, in conjunction with those from the aircraft observations during ACROSS, are used to initialize and perform sensitivity studies on the aerosol DRE, using the CHIMERE−WRF coupled model, the OPTSIM model for the aerosol optical properties and the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG).Keywords: Complex refractive index, direct radiative effect, aerosol mixing, urban, forest
Ključne besede: aerosol optical properties, refractive index
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 728; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (293,28 KB)

5.
An improved low-input resistance folded-cascode transimpedance amplifier for giga-bit per second optical communication front-ends
Soorena Zohoori, Ahmad Hosseini, Mehrdad Amirkhan Amirkhan Dehkordi, Seyed Mehdi Mirsanei, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The present study is devoted to articulating a modified folded‐cascode circuit, to make folded‐cascode structures an attractive configuration as a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for being employed in Giga‐bit per second optical communication receiver systems. Giga‐bps communication receivers are highly necessitating circuits to isolate the input parasitic capacitance of the photodiode. The present modification makes folded cascodes comparable to the famous regulated cascode (RGC) structures by isolating this parasitic capacitor almost by the same quantity. The system is shown to be capable of operating at 2.5 Gbps up to 8 Gbps data rate with a fixed bandwidth. The paper analyzes and evaluates the designed circuit mathematically, and the obtained simulated results from Cadence using TSMC 65 nm CMOS validate the suitability of the modified circuit as a TIA.
Ključne besede: improved folded-cascode, low input resistance, low noise, optical receiver, transimepdance amplifier
Objavljeno v RUNG: 08.12.2023; Ogledov: 646; Prenosov: 2
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6.
Characterization of atmospheric properties over the Cherenkov Telescope Array at La Palma
Miha Živec, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) systems are used in high-energy astrophysics to detect and study gamma-ray sources in the universe. These telescopes measure properties of cosmic gamma rays using Cherenkov radiation emitted by secondary particles produced after interacting with the Earth’s atmosphere. Atmospheric monitoring is crucial for the proper operation of IACT systems. A number of remote sensing and in situ methods are used to understand and correct the effects of the atmosphere on the propagation of Cherenkov radiation from its origin to the telescope. Failure to do so greatly decreases IACT performance, particularly, their energy resolution and threshold. Lidar systems can be used to measure atmospheric optical depth profiles, which are essential for IACT calibration. The main aim of this thesis is to demonstrate that a prototype lidar for the north-ern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO), which is a next-generation IACT now under construction, has hardware and software capabilities that would lead to the construction of CTAO Raman lidar. Due to specific require-ments of the CTAO, a Raman lidar, which can provide better atmospheric parameter accuracy, will be used for the first time in an IACT system. In 2021-2022 the BRL was deployed to the future CTAO-North site at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, for testing in its actual operating conditions. During a year and a half long test period, it underwent a number of tests, including manual and remote operation under various environmental conditions. These included hot summers, cold winters, rain, snow, ice, and strong winds, but also some more exotic events, such as desert sand intrusions (Calima) and volcanic eruptions. The latter two are presented in this work as test cases for atmospheric characterization. Since the main goal of a CTAO lidar is the optical depth measurements, the BRL does not have the full set of features for aerosol characterization. While it can yield the ˚Angstr¨om exponent and lidar ratio, it does not provide depolarization informa-tion, which is one of the key components for aerosol typing. As the atmosphere at La Palma was found to be more complex than initially anticipated, we present the benefits of including depolarization capability by using a conceptually similar Raman lidar system specifically designed for aerosol characterization. We present the results of a campaign focused on the determination of bioaerosol capabilities to act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice-nucleating particles in mixed-phase clouds, where depo-larization information was used to determine the thermodynamic phase of the cloud.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, Raman Lidar, atmospheric optical depth, aerosol characterization, Cumbre Vieja, Calima
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.10.2023; Ogledov: 866; Prenosov: 25
.pdf Celotno besedilo (26,88 MB)

7.
Power-aware Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Mesh Networks for Bandwidth Wastage Minimization: A Genetic Algorithm-based Approach
Soumen Atta, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, 2012, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The cost of optical backbone network has increased nowadays. So we need to reduce this cost. One of the major contributory costs is the power consumed by the underlying network. Power may also be consumed by different network equipments viz. add-drop multiplexers (ADM), Network Interface Device (NID), Optical Network Terminal (ONT), electrical-to-optical-to-electrical (EOE) conversion etc. In this article we have only considered the power consumption by EOE conversion in a mesh network. We have proposed a genetic algorithm to minimize the EOE conversions needed for a mesh network to satisfy all the traffic requests for a given physical topology. We have also considered the amount of wavelength wastages for our solution and we have minimized these wastages below a user given value. The results have been demonstrated on two optical mesh networks.
Ključne besede: Optical Network, WDM, Traffic Grooming, Network Components, Green Optical Network, Genetic Algorithm
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.06.2023; Ogledov: 1002; Prenosov: 0
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