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An overview of the ASKOS campaign in Cabo Verde
Eleni Marinou, Peristera Paschou, Ioanna Tsikoudi, Alexandra Tsekeri, Vasiliki Daskalopoulou, Dimitra Kouklaki, Nikos Siomos, Vasileios Spanakis-Misirlis, Kalliopi Artemis Voudouri, Griša Močnik, Jesús Yus-Díez, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In the framework of the ESA-NASA Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign (JATAC), the ASKOS experiment was implemented during the summer and autumn of 2021 and 2022. ASKOS comprised roughly 9 weeks of measurements in the Saharan dust outflow towards the North Atlantic, with operations conducted from the Cabo Verde Islands. Through its unprecedented dataset of synergistic measurements in the region, ASKOS will allow for the calibration and validation of the aerosol/cloud product from Aeolus and the preparation of the terrain for EarthCARE cal/val activities. Moreover, ASKOS marks a turning point in our ability to study Saharan dust properties and the processes affecting its atmospheric transport, as well as the link to other components of the Earth’s system, such as the effect of dust particles on cloud formation over the Eastern Atlantic and the effect of large and giant particles on radiation. This is possible through the synergy of diverse observations acquired during the experiment, which include intense 24/7 ground-based aerosol, cloud, wind, and radiation remote sensing measurements, and UAV-based aerosol in situ measurements within the Saharan air layer, up to 5.3 km altitude, offering particle size-distributions up to 40 μm as well as sample collection for mineralogical analysis. We provide an outline of the novel measurements along with the main scientific objectives of ASKOS. The campaign data will be publicly available by September of 2023 through the EVDC portal (ESA Validation Data Center).
Ključne besede: experimental campaign, remote sensing, lidar, radar, radiosondes, radiation, desert dust
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.09.2023; Ogledov: 1054; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,87 MB)
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Covalent polymer thin films for biosensor applications
Tina Skorjanc, Andraž Mavrič, Mads Nybo Sorensen, Gregor Mali, Changzhu Wu, Matjaž Valant, 2022, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Ključne besede: bacteria, sensing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrophoresis, electrode preparation, Menshutkin reaction
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2022; Ogledov: 1423; Prenosov: 0
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Investigation of Aerosol Types and Vertical Distributions Using Polarization Raman Lidar over Vipava Valley
Longlong Wang, Marija Bervida, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Zhenping Yin, Yang Yi, Detlef Müller, Xuan Wang, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Aerosol direct radiative forcing is strongly dependent on aerosol distributions and aerosol types. A detailed understanding of such information is still missing at the Alpine region, which currently undergoes amplified climate warming. Our goal was to study the vertical variability of aerosol types within and above the Vipava valley (45.87◦ N, 13.90◦ E, 125 m a.s.l.) to reveal the vertical impact of each particular aerosol type on this region, a representative complex terrain in the Alpine region which often suffers from air pollution in the wintertime. This investigation was performed using the entire dataset of a dual-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system, which covers 33 nights from September to December 2017. The lidar provides measurements from midnight to early morning (typically from 00:00 to 06:00 CET) to provide aerosol-type dependent properties, which include particle linear depolarization ratio, lidar ratio at 355 nm and the aerosol backscatter Ångström exponent between 355 nm and 1064 nm. These aerosol properties were compared with similar studies, and the aerosol types were identified by the measured aerosol optical properties. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley are mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel, and traffic emissions. Natural aerosols, such as mineral dust and sea salt, are mostly transported over large distances. A mixture of two or more aerosol types was generally found. The aerosol characterization and statistical properties of vertical aerosol distributions were performed up to 3 km.
Ključne besede: valley air pollution, aerosol vertical distributions, lidar remote sensing, aerosol identification
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.07.2022; Ogledov: 1620; Prenosov: 28
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,57 MB)

Plastic Waste Precursor-Derived Fluorescent Carbon and Construction of Ternary FCs@CuO@TiO2 Hybrid Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production and Sensing Application
Akansha Metha, Rayees Ahmad Rather, Blaž Belec, Sandra Gardonio, Ming Fang, Matjaž Valant, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A sustainable nexus between renewable energy production and plastic abatement is imperative for overall sustainable development. In this regard, this study aims to develop a cheaper and environmentally friendly nexus between plastic waste management, wastewater treatment, and renewable hydrogen production. Fluorescent carbon (FCs) were synthesized from commonly used LDPE (low-density polyethylene) by a facile hydrothermal approach. Optical absorption study revealed an absorption edge around 300 nm and two emission bands at 430 and 470 nm. The morphological analysis showed two different patterns of FCs, a thin sheet with 2D morphology and elongated particles. The sheet-shaped particles are 0.5 μm in size, while as for elongated structures, the size varies from 0.5 to 1 μm. The as-synthesized FCs were used for the detection of metal ions (reference as Cu2+ ions) in water. The fluorescence intensity of FCs versus Cu2+ ions depicts its upright analytical ability with a limit of detection (LOD) reaching 86.5 nM, which is considerably lesser than earlier reported fluorescence probes derived from waste. After the sensing of Cu2+, the as-obtained FCs@Cu2+ was mixed with TiO2 to form a ternary FCs@CuO@TiO2 composite. This ternary composite was utilized for photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under 1.5 AM solar light irradiation. The H2 evolution rate was found to be ~1800 μmolg−1, which is many folds compared to the bare FCs. Moreover, the optimized FCs@CuO@TiO2 ternary composite showed a photocurrent density of ~2.40 mA/cm2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, in 1 M Na2SO4 solution under the illumination of simulated solar light. The achieved photocurrent density corresponds to the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of ~0.95%. The efficiency is due to the fluorescence nature of FCs and the synergistic effect of CuO embedded in TiO2, which enhances the optical absorption of the composite by reaching the bandgap of 2.44 eV, apparently reducing the recombination rate, which was confirmed by optoelectronic, structural, and spectroscopic characterizations.
Ključne besede: plastic waste, fluorescent carbo, sensing of metal ions, photocatalytic hydrogen production
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.02.2022; Ogledov: 1877; Prenosov: 43
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,98 MB)

Real-time monitoring of Arundo donax response to saline stress through the application of in vivo sensing technology
Janni Michela, Claudia Cocozza, Federico Brilli, Sara Pignattelli, Filippo Vurro, Nicola Coppede, Manuele Bettelli, Davide Calestani, Francesco Loreto, Andrea Zappettini, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: One of the main impacts of climate change on agriculture production is the dramatic increase of saline (Na+) content in substrate, that will impair crop performance and productivity. Here we demonstrate how the application of smart technologies such as an in vivo sensor, termed bioristor, allows to continuously monitor in real-time the dynamic changes of ion concentration in the sap of Arundo donax L. (common name giant reed or giant cane), when exposed to a progressive salinity stress. Data collected in vivo by bioristor sensors inserted at two different heights into A. donax stems enabled us to detect the early phases of stress response upon increasing salinity. Indeed, the continuous time-series of data recorded by the bioristor returned a specific signal which correlated with Na+ content in leaves of Na-stressed plants, opening a new perspective for its application as a tool for in vivo plant phenotyping and selection of genotypes more suitable for the exploitation of saline soils.
Ključne besede: Arundo donax, saline stress, vivo sensing technology
Objavljeno v RUNG: 17.12.2021; Ogledov: 1860; Prenosov: 18
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Gravity wave instability structures and turbulence from more than 1.5 years of OH[ast] airglow imager observations in Slovenia
René Sedlak, Patrick Hannawald, Carsten Schmidt, Sabine Wüst, Michael Bittner, Samo Stanič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We analyzed 286 nights of data from the OH* airglow imager FAIM 3 (Fast Airglow IMager) acquired at Otlica Observatory, Slovenia, between 26 October 2017 and 6 June 2019. Measurements were performed with a spatial resolution of 24 m per pixel and a temporal resolution of 2.8 s. Multiple turbulence episodes were observed and the energy dissipation rate in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region was estimated from image sequences in 25 cases. Values range around 0.08 and 9.03 W/kg and would lead to an approximated localized maximum heating of 0.03–3.02 K per turbulence event.
Ključne besede: upper mesosphere, lower thermosphere, remote sensing, gravity waves, turbulence, Bora episodes
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.10.2021; Ogledov: 2001; Prenosov: 0
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A survey of communication systems and modulation schemes for spectrum sensing by cognitive radio
Mrinal Sharma, Gagandeep Singh, Rajan Gupta, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The growth of wireless applications and spectral limitations are grave anxiety for the military service and for civilian communities. A particular spectrum task force set up by Federal Communications Commission discloses that in many bands spectrum access is a more important problem than physical scarcity of the spectrum. This is in part because present systems use a procedure draw up in the1920s where different frequency bands are allocated to users or service providers, and licenses are needed to operate with those bands. To avail unused spectrum more efficiently in dynamic environments, we desire a communication system that adapts to rapidly changing environmental conditions while ensuring that minimal or at least manageable interference is introduced to existing users. Such a technology is known as cognitive radio (CR) technology. Transform domain communication system (TDCS) and wavelet domain communication system (WDCS) have been reported to have interference avoiding capability under hostile environmental conditions. Conventionally, the Pseudo Random phase vectors in TDCS and WDCS were generated by a maximum length binary Pseudo Random sequence, which allows only a relatively small amount of users in the systems. This paper reports a method of Digital modulations schemes (FSK, PSK, CSK) and communications systems (TDCS,WDCS) for efficient utilization of the spectrum in Cognitive radio.
Ključne besede: cognitive radio, TDCS, WDCS, spectrum sensing
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.04.2021; Ogledov: 1884; Prenosov: 10
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Diversity of bacteria and bacterial products as antibiofilm and antiquorum sensing drugs against pathogenic bacteria
Fazlurrahman Khan, Sandra Oloketuyi, Young-Mog Kim, 2019, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: The increase in antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria has led to the development of new therapeutic approaches to inhibit biofilm formation as well as interfere quorum sensing (QS) signaling systems. The QS system is a phenomenon in which pathogenic bacteria produce signaling molecules that are involved in cell to cell communication, production of virulence factors, biofilm maturation, and several other functions. In the natural environment, several non-pathogenic bacteria are present as mixed population along with pathogenic bacteria and they control the behavior of microbial community by producing secondary metabolites. Similarly, non-pathogenic bacteria also take advantages of the QS signaling molecule as a sole carbon source for their growth through catabolism with enzymes. Several enzymes are produced by bacteria which disrupt the biofilm architecture by degrading the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as exopolysaccharide, extracellular- DNA and protein. Thus, the interference of QS system by bacterial metabolic products and enzymatic catalysis, modification of the QS signaling molecules as well as enzymatic disruption of biofilm architecture have been considered as the alternative therapeutic approaches. This review article elaborates on the diversity of different bacterial species with respect to their metabolic products as well as enzymes and their molecular modes of action. The bacterial enzymes and metabolic products will open new and promising perspectives for the development of strategies against the pathogenic bacterial infections.
Ključne besede: Bacteria, biofilm, quorum sensing, inhibition, metabolites, pathogen, virulence.
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.01.2021; Ogledov: 2666; Prenosov: 0
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