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1.
Highlights from the Telescope Array Experiment
J. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. Together with the TA Low Energy Extension (TALE), TA×4, and TALE infill detector, the TA measures the properties of UHECR-induced extensive air showers (EAS) in the energy region from 10^15 eV to over 10^20 eV. Each of these uses a hybrid system with an array of scintillators to sample the footprint of the EAS at the Earth’s surface along with telescopes that measure the fluorescence and Cherenkov light from the EAS. The statistics at the highest energies are being enhanced with the TA×4 detector, half completed but still under construction, which will quadruple the surface detector area with telescopes. The TALE infill surface detectors were recently deployed to further lower the hybrid energy threshold of TALE. We present the status of the experiment and recent results on the energy spectrum, mass composition, and anisotropy, including new features in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV and in the UHECR arrival direction anisotropy.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, surface detection, fluorescence detection, cerenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.10.2023; Ogledov: 466; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (26,81 MB)
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2.
TA SD analysis for inclined air showers
K. Takahashi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The origin of UHECRs is an open question which is complicated due to not very well-known deflections of the charged particles in Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields. Finding the EeV neutrinos from astronomical sources will be a key to solve the problem of the origin. EeV neutrinos are expected to produce extensive air showers which are observable by the current operational air shower arrays. To search for neutrino-induced showers, it is important to increase both the interaction probability and background rejection power in the analysis of the inclined showers. We study a reconstruction method of the Telescope Array surface detector (TA SD) data for the neutrino-induced inclined air showers. The prime target is to improve the angular resolution for the astronomical objects. In this contribution, we present the detail of analysis method, angular resolution and total exposure of TA SD for neutrinos from the astronomical objects as a function of the declination.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, inclined showers, neutrinos
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.10.2023; Ogledov: 427; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)
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3.
Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the TA×4 SD array
Kozo Fujisue, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The TA×4 experiment aims to better understand the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by expanding the observation area of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment by a factor of 4. This expansion will increase the statistics of UHECR events with energies greater than 10^19.5 eV. The SD, which means the additionally deployed surface detectors (SD) for the TA×4 experiment, has been collecting data since 2019, and the analysis of this data is currently underway. In this presentation, we will report comparisons between the Monte Carlo simulation and the data obtained by the TA×4 SD array and highlight the agreement between the two. We will also report on the UHECR energy spectrum observed by the TA×4 SD array from October 2019 to September 2022.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.10.2023; Ogledov: 434; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,51 MB)
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4.
Search for EeV photon-induced events at the Telescope Array
I. Kharuk, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We report on the updated results on the search for photon-like-induced events in the data, collected by Telescope Array's Surface Detectors during the last 14 years. In order to search for photon-like-induced events, we trained a neural network on Monte-Carlo simulated data to distinguish between the proton-induced and photon-induced air showers. Both reconstructed composition-sensitive parameters and raw signals registered by the Surface Detectors are used as input data for the neural network. The classification threshold was optimized to provide the strongest possible constraint on the photons' flux.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, neural network, machine learning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.10.2023; Ogledov: 543; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (543,46 KB)
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5.
A study of the systematic effects on the energy scale for the measurement of UHECR spectrum by the TA SD array
Keitaro Fujita, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We evaluated the systematic deviation of energy scales for the energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays observed by the Telescope Array Surface Detector array due to differences in atmospheric fluorescence yield and missing energy estimation. The energy dependence on the energy scales is also investigated and observationally confirmed by the constant intensity cut method analysis. The results of these studies will be presented.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, fluorescence yield, missing energy, systematics
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.10.2023; Ogledov: 528; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (867,73 KB)
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6.
Current status and prospects of surface detector of the TAx4 experiment
E. Kido, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Telescope Array (TA) is the largest ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. A surface detector (SD) array covers approximately 700 km^2, and the SD array is surrounded by three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. TA has found evidence for a cluster of cosmic rays with energies greater than 57 EeV from the TA SD data. In order to confirm this evidence with more data, we started the TAx4 experiment which expands the detection area using new SDs and FDs. We started construction of new SDs which are arranged in a square grid with 2.08 km spacing at the north east and south east of the TA SD array. More than half of the new SDs are already deployed and running. We present the current status of the TAx4 SD, trigger efficiency and exposure prospects for the highest energy part of the cosmic ray spectrum.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, trigger efficiency
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 547; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,30 MB)
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7.
Performance of the 433 m surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory
G. Silli, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic-ray observatory. While it was originally built to study the cosmic-ray flux above 10^18.5 eV, several enhancements have reduced this energy threshold. One such enhancement is a surface array composed of a triangular grid of 19 water-Cherenkov detectors separated by 433 m (SD-433) to explore the energies down to about 10^16 eV. We are developing two research lines employing the SD-433. Firstly, we will measure the energy spectrum in a region where previous experiments have shown evidence of the second knee. Secondly, we will search for ultra-high energy photons to study PeV cosmic-ray sources residing in the Galactic center. In this work, we introduce the SD-433 and we show that it is fully efficient above 5×10^16 eV for hadronic primaries with θ<45∘. Using seven years of data, we present the parametrization of the lateral distribution function of measured signals. Finally, we show that an angular resolution of 1.8∘ (0.5∘) can be attained at the lowest (highest) primary energies. Our study lays the goundmark for measurements in the energy range above 10^16 eV by utilizing the SD-433 and thus expanding the scientific output of the Auger surface detector.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, SD-433, indirect detection, surface detection, low energy extension, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, photons, multimessenger
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 553; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (893,20 KB)
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8.
Extraction of the Muon Signals Recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory Using Recurrent Neural Networks
J.M. Carceller, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a method based on the use of Recurrent Neural Networks to extract the muon component from the time traces registered with water-Cherenkov detector (WCD) stations of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The design of the WCDs does not allow to separate the contribution of muons to the time traces obtained from the WCDs from those of photons, electrons and positrons for all events. Separating the muon and electromagnetic components is crucial for the determination of the nature of the primary cosmic rays and properties of the hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies. We trained a neural network to extract the muon and the electromagnetic components from the WCD traces using a large set of simulated air showers, with around 450 000 simulated events. For training and evaluating the performance of the neural network, simulated events with energies between 10^18.5 eV and 10^20 eV and zenith angles below 60 degrees were used. We also study the performance of this method on experimental data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and show that our predicted muon lateral distributions agree with the parameterizations obtained by the AGASA collaboration.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, muons, machine learning, recurrent neural network
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 543; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,08 MB)
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9.
Monte Carlo simulations for the Pierre Auger Observatory using the VO auger grid resources
E. Santos, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located near Malargüe, Argentina, is the world’s largest cosmic-ray detector. It comprises a 3000 km^2 surface detector and 27 fluorescence telescopes, which measure the lateral and longitudinal distributions of the many millions of air-shower particles produced in the interactions initiated by a cosmic ray in the Earth’s atmosphere. The determination of the nature of cosmic rays and studies of the detector performances rely on extensive Monte Carlo simulations describing the physics processes occurring in extensive air showers and the detector responses. The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations task is to produce and provide the Auger Collaboration with reference libraries used in a wide variety of analyses. All multipurpose detector simulations are currently produced in local clusters using Slurm and HTCondor. The bulk of the shower simulations are produced on the grid, via the Virtual Organization auger, using the DIRAC middleware. The job submission is made via python scripts using the DIRAC-API. The Auger site is undergoing a major upgrade, which includes the installation of new types of detectors, demanding increased simulation resources. The novel detection of the radio component of extensive air showers is the most challenging endeavor, requiring dedicated shower simulations with very long computation times, not optimized for the grid production. For data redundancy, the simulations are stored on the Lyon server and the grid Disk Pool Manager and are accessible to the Auger members via iRODS and DIRAC, respectively. The CERN VMFile System is used for software distribution where, soon, the Auger Offline software will also be made available.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface detection, radio detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, Monte Carlo simulation, computing resources, compute clusters, high capacity storage
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 502; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,54 MB)
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10.
Status and performance of the underground muon detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
A.M. Botti, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory, whose purpose is to lower the energy threshold of the observatory down to 10^16.5 eV, and to measure the muonic content of air showers directly. These measurements will significantly contribute to the determination of primary particle masses in the range between the second knee and the ankle, to the study of hadronic interaction models with air showers, and, in turn, to the understanding of the muon puzzle. The underground muon detector of AMIGA is concomitant to two triangular grids of water-Cherenkov stations with spacings of 433 and 750 m; each grid position is equipped with a 30 m^2 plastic scintillator buried at 2.3 m depth. After the engineering array completion in early 2018 and general improvements to the design, the production phase commenced. In this work, we report on the status of the underground muon detector, the progress of its deployment, and the performance achieved after two years of operation. The detector construction is foreseen to finish by mid-2022.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, AMIGA, indirect detection, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, muon detection
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 586; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,21 MB)
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