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Measuring the spatial variability of black carbon in Athens during wintertime
Georgios Grivas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Eleni Liakakou, Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, D. Paraskevopoulou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A first assessment of the spatial variability of ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations in the Greater Area of Athens (GAA) was carried out during an intensive wintertime campaign, when ambient levels are exacerbated by increased biomass burning for residential heating. Short-term daytime BC measurements were conducted at 50 sites (traffic and urban/suburban/regional background) and on-road along 12 routes. Daytime measurements were adjusted based on BC concentrations continuously monitored at a reference site. Indicative nighttime BC ambient concentrations were also measured at several residences across the area. Daytime BC concentrations recorded an average of 2.3 μg m-3 with considerable between-site variability. Concentrations at traffic sites were significantly higher (43% on average), compared with the rest of the sites. Varying levels were observed between background site subtypes, with concentrations at urban background sites (located near the center of Athens and the port of Piraeus) being 34% and 114% higher, on average, than at suburban and regional background sites, respectively. The traffic intensity at the nearest road and the population and built density in the surrounding area of sites were recognized as important factors controlling BC levels. On-road concentration measurements (5.4 μg m-3 on average) enabled the identification of hot-spots in the road network, with peak levels encountered along motorways (13.5 μg m-3 on average). Nighttime measurements demonstrated that wintertime BC pollution, enhanced by residential biomass burning for heating, affects the entire Athens basin. The reference site in central Athens was found to be representative of the temporal variability for daytime and nighttime BC concentrations at background locations.
Ključne besede: mobile measurements, microaethalometer, Athens, mapping, traffic, biomass burning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 292; Prenosov: 3
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Integrating in situ measurements and city scale modelling to assess the COVID–19 lockdown effects on emissions and air quality in Athens, Greece
Georgios Grivas, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Anastasia Kakouri, Jennifer Bailey, Eleni Liakakou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Michel Ramonet, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The lockdown measures implemented worldwide to slow the spread of the COVID–19 pandemic have allowed for a unique real-world experiment, regarding the impacts of drastic emission cutbacks on urban air quality. In this study we assess the effects of a 7-week (23 March–10 May 2020) lockdown in the Greater Area of Athens, coupling in situ observations with estimations from a meteorology-atmospheric chemistry model. Measurements in central Athens during the lockdown were compared with levels during the pre- and post-lockdown 3-week periods and with respective levels in the four previous years. We examined regulatory pollutants as well as CO2, black carbon (BC) and source-specific BC components. Models were run for pre-lockdown and lockdown periods, under baseline and reduced-emissions scenarios. The in-situ results indicate mean concentration reductions of 30–35% for traffic-related pollutants in Athens (NO2, CO, BC from fossil fuel combustion), compared to the pre-lockdown period. A large reduction (53%) was observed also for the urban CO2 enhancement while the reduction for PM2.5 was subtler (18%). Significant reductions were also observed when comparing the 2020 lockdown period with past years. However, levels rebounded immediately following the lift of the general lockdown. The decrease in measured NO2 concentrations was reproduced by the implementation of the city scale model, under a realistic reduced-emissions scenario for the lockdown period, anchored at a 46% decline of road transport activity. The model permitted the assessment of air quality improvements on a spatial scale, indicating that NO2 mean concentration reductions in areas of the Athens basin reached up to 50%. The findings suggest a potential for local traffic management strategies to reduce ambient exposure and to minimize exceedances of air quality standards for primary pollutants.
Ključne besede: pandemic, urban air pollution, traffic, chemical transport model, TAPM, mapping
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 321; Prenosov: 2
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Assessment of the COVID-19 lockdown effects on spectral aerosol scattering and absorption properties in Athens, Greece
Dimitris G. Kaskaoutis, Georgios Grivas, Eleni Liakakou, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Pavlos Zarmpas, Umesh Chandra Dumka, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: COVID-19 is evolving into one of the worst pandemics in recent history, claiming a death toll of over 1.5 million as of December 2020. In an attempt to limit the expansion of the pandemic in its initial phase, nearly all countries imposed restriction measures, which resulted in an unprecedented reduction of air pollution. This study aims to assess the impact of the lockdown effects due to COVID-19 on in situ measured aerosol properties, namely spectral-scattering (bsca) and absorption (babs) coefficients, black carbon (BC) concentrations, single-scattering albedo (SSA), scattering and absorption Ångström exponents (SAE, AAE) in Athens, Greece. Moreover, a comparison is performed with the regional background site of Finokalia, Crete, for a better assessment of the urban impact on observed differences. The study examines pre-lockdown (1–22 March 2020), lockdown (23 March–3 May 2020) and post-lockdown (4–31 May 2020) periods, while the aerosol properties are also compared with a 3–4 year preceding period (2016/2017–2019). Comparison of meteorological parameters in Athens, between the lockdown period and respective days in previous years, showed only marginal variation, which is not deemed sufficient in order to justify the notable changes in aerosol concentrations and optical properties. The largest reduction during the lockdown period was observed for babs compared to the pre-lockdown (−39%) and to the same period in previous years (−36%). This was intensified during the morning traffic hours (−60%), reflecting the large decrease in vehicular emissions. Furthermore, AAE increased during the lockdown period due to reduced emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, while a smaller (−21%) decrease was observed for bsca along with slight increases (6%) in SAE and SSA values, indicating that scattering aerosol properties were less affected by the decrease in vehicular emissions, as they are more dependent on regional sources and atmospheric processing. Nighttime BC emissions related to residential wood-burning were slightly increased during the lockdown period, with respect to previous-year means. On the contrary, aerosol and pollution changes during the lockdown period at Finokalia were low and highly sensitive to natural sources and processes.
Ključne besede: COVID-19, traffic, aerosol scattering, absorption, SSA, Greece
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 260; Prenosov: 3
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Monitoring of the particles above the unpaved road by lidar technique
Urška Koren, William Eichinger, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Basic concepts of laser-based technique LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) are discussed in this article as well as advantages and disadvantages. Presented are measurements of relative particulate concentrations above an unpaved road which were performed in a rural area near the Iowa City, Iowa, USA. The LIDAR system used in these measurements is a small, scanning LIDAR that uses elastic backscattering to obtain information on the amount of atmospheric aerosols. In the elastic LIDAR, light scattered back towards the LIDAR system from molecules and particles in the atmosphere is collected by a telescope and is detected with a photodiode. A Big Sky Laser model CFR-200 Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064 microns is used to generate the LIDAR's outgoing signal. The laser is attached directly to the top of a 26 cm, f/10 Cassegrian telescope. A series of pulses are summed to make a single scan. A series of scans is used to build up a two- dimensional map of relative atmospheric aerosol concentrations. With a maximum range of about 6-8 km, a range resolution of 2.5 m, and a time resolution of 30 s, the LIDAR is capable of very detailed mapping of aerosols.
Ključne besede: LIDAR technique, particulate concentration, traffic emissions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 12.07.2023; Ogledov: 893; Prenosov: 2
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Power-aware Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Mesh Networks for Bandwidth Wastage Minimization: A Genetic Algorithm-based Approach
Soumen Atta, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, 2012, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The cost of optical backbone network has increased nowadays. So we need to reduce this cost. One of the major contributory costs is the power consumed by the underlying network. Power may also be consumed by different network equipments viz. add-drop multiplexers (ADM), Network Interface Device (NID), Optical Network Terminal (ONT), electrical-to-optical-to-electrical (EOE) conversion etc. In this article we have only considered the power consumption by EOE conversion in a mesh network. We have proposed a genetic algorithm to minimize the EOE conversions needed for a mesh network to satisfy all the traffic requests for a given physical topology. We have also considered the amount of wavelength wastages for our solution and we have minimized these wastages below a user given value. The results have been demonstrated on two optical mesh networks.
Ključne besede: Optical Network, WDM, Traffic Grooming, Network Components, Green Optical Network, Genetic Algorithm
Objavljeno v RUNG: 05.06.2023; Ogledov: 1119; Prenosov: 0
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Connectivity reliability in uncertain networks with stability analysis
Ahmad Hosseini, Eddie Wadbro, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Ključne besede: Traffic network, Uncertainty theory, Reliability, Chance-constrained, Stability analysis
Objavljeno v RUNG: 14.02.2023; Ogledov: 1113; Prenosov: 0
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NETRA : a vigilant eye on the Internet
2019, intervju

Ključne besede: Surveillance, Network Monitoring, NETRA, Network Traffic Regulation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.04.2021; Ogledov: 2362; Prenosov: 63
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Internet traffic surveillance & network monitoring in India : case study of NETRA
Rajan Gupta, Sunil K. Muttoo, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Internet traffic surveillance is gaining importance in today’s digital world. Lots of international agencies are putting in efforts to monitor the network around their countries to see suspicious activities and illegal or illegitimate transmission of messages. India, being a center of attraction for terrorist activities, is also working towards the development of such surveillance systems. NETRA or Network Traffic Analysis is one such effort being taken by the Indian Government to filter suspicious keywords from messages in the network. But is it good enough to be used at the highest level for security analysis or does the system design needs to be improved as compared to other similar systems around the world; this question is answered through this study. The comparison of NETRA is done against Dish Fire, Prism, and Echelon. The design of the NETRA scheme and implementation level analysis of the system shows few weaknesses like limited memory options, limited channels for monitoring, pre-set filters, ignoring big data demands, security concerns, social values breach and ignoring ethical issues. These can be covered through alternate options which can improve the existing system. The Inclusion of self-similarity models, Self-Configuring Network Monitoring, and smart monitoring through early intrusion detections can be embedded in the architecture of existing surveillance system to give it more depth and make it more robust.
Ključne besede: cyber attacks, NETRA, network monitoring, network traffic analysis, surveillance system, spy system
Objavljeno v RUNG: 01.04.2021; Ogledov: 2099; Prenosov: 55
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Household and road dust as indicators of airborne particulate matter elemental composition : dissertation
Klemen Teran, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Household dust (HD) and road dust (RD) are widespread and easily accessible urban sediments, which are influenced by deposition of airborne particulate matter (PM). Since airborne PM is considered to be one of the most important pollutants in urban areas, with significant adverse effects on human health, a better understanding of its elemental composition and dispersion mechanisms is needed. The present study examines whether the HD and RD elemental composition can be used as a quick alternative method for the determination of corresponding PM elemental composition over a selected area. In summer 2016, HD, RD, and topsoil samples were collected from 249 sampling locations distributed across rural, urban, and industrial areas in Slovenia. The collected samples were sieved for particle diameters below 63 μm and analysed for 53 elements with ICP-MS after aqua regia digestion. SEM/EDS analyses were applied for the determination of characteristic particles at the microlevel. Finally, the elemental composition of HD and RD was compared with the PM10 elemental composition obtained from National Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring governed by Slovenian Environmental Agency (ARSO) to determine any potential connection between them. The results show that HD and RD are considerably enriched with a large set of elements compared to the topsoil. Correlations and factor analyses show that spatial distribution of factor scores in RD revealed strong regional trends, connected with soil resuspension (Al, Ce, Ga, K, La, Li, P, Rb, Sc and Y) or with anthropogenic sources such as traffic (Ag, Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn), steel mill emissions (Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni and W) and construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr). In contrast, HD elemental composition was highly variable between sampling locations. Variability was probably caused by indoor sources, such as smoking (Ce and La), biomass combustion (K, P and Rb), construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr) and residents’ professional occupation: dental care employees (Ag, Au, Pd) and employees in the metal-processing industry (Cr, Mo, Ni). Among deposited particles in RD, urbanization processes, such as fossil fuel combustion and traffic emissions, including brake pad abrasion and tyre wear, contributed the largest share of particles with anomalous elemental composition. Brake pad abrasion, for instance, contributed Ba-, Cu-, Sn-, and Zn-enriched irregular, angular and tabular particles, while tyre wear produced elongated rubber particles with traces of Ba, Cu, and Zn. RD from urban areas showed significantly higher elemental levels of Ag, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mo, Nb, Pb, Pt, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Zn, and W in comparison to the rural environment, indicating the strong impact of urbanization on RD elemental composition. Another important anthropogenic source of deposited particles in RD were steel mills. Strong anomalies of Cr, Mo and Ni were detected in their vicinity. Their elemental levels decreased with distancing from the plan location, reaching urban background levels between 15 and 20 km from the mills. SEM/EDS analyses identified enrichments of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and W in spherical particles and particles with partially melted surfaces, which were found only in the proximity of steel mills, indicating their influence of the PM deposition. Comparison of RD and the corresponding PM10 elemental composition showed that the RD fraction with particle diameters below 63 μm reflects PM10 elemental composition for the last 30 to 90 days for Cr, Cu, Mo and Zn and can be used as a predictor for PM10 elemental levels. This is not true for HD, as indoor particle sources prevail over the deposition of ambient PM10.
Ključne besede: household dust, road dust, particulate matter, PM10, pollution, Slovenia, steel mills, topsoil, traffic, urbanization
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.12.2020; Ogledov: 3932; Prenosov: 187
.pdf Celotno besedilo (17,40 MB)

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