Repozitorij Univerze v Novi Gorici

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Tanusree Saha, 2023, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Complex systems in condensed matter are characterized by strong coupling between different degrees of freedom constituting a solid. In materials described by many-body physics, these interactions may lead to the formation of new ground states such as excitonic insulators, Mott insulators, and charge and spin density waves. However, the inherent complexity in such materials poses a challenge to identifying the dominant interactions governing these phases using equilibrium studies. Owing to the distinct timescales associated with the elementary interactions, such complexities can be readily addressed in the non-equilibrium regime. Additionally, these materials might also show the emergence of new, metastable “hidden“ phases under non-equilibrium. The thesis investigates the ultrafast timescales of fundamental interactions in candidate systems by employing time-and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in the femtosecond time domain. In the (supposed) excitonic insulator model system Ta2NiSe5, the timescale of band gap closure and the dependence of rise time (of the photoemission signal) on the photoexcitation strength point to a predominantly electronic origin of the band gap at the Fermi level. The charge density wave (CDW) - Mott insulator 1T-TaS2 undergoes photoinduced phase transition to two different phases. The initial one is a transient phase which resembles the systems’s high temperature equilibrium phase, followed by a long-lived “hidden“ phase with a different CDW amplitude and is primarily driven by the CDW lattice order. For the spin density wave system CaFe2As2 where multiple bands contribute in the formation of Fermi surfaces, selective photoexcitation was used to disentangle the role played by different electron orbitals. By varying the polarization of photoexcitation pulses, it is observed that dxz/dyz orbitals primarily contribute to the magnetic ordering while the dxy orbitals have dominant role in the structural order. The findings of the present study provide deeper perspectives on the underlying interactions in complex ground phases of matter, therefore, initiating further experimental and theoretical studies on such materials.
Ključne besede: complex systems, charge density wave, excitonic insulator, metastable phase, Mott insulator, non-equilibrium, spin density wave, timescales, time- and angle-resolved photoemission, ultrafast dynamics
Objavljeno v RUNG: 01.06.2023; Ogledov: 482; Prenosov: 12
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,34 MB)

Advantages and disadvantages of experiments with ultrashort two-color pulses
Matija Stupar, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Advances in the development of lasers have led to a new class of radiation sources generating coherent, tunable, ultrashort light pulses in the spectral region ranging from infrared to soft X-rays. This includes high-order harmonics generation in gas (HHG), on which relies the CITIUS facility at University of Nova Gorica (Slovenia), and free-electron lasers (FELs), such as the facility FERMI at Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy). The distinctive structure of HHG and FEL radiation paved the way to time-resolved experiments, which are performed to investigate events occurring on a short, or very short, temporal scale, from picoseconds to femtoseconds. This work focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of some experimental techniques based on using these novel light sources to investigate the microscopic and/or ultrafast dynamics of matter samples, which have been previously driven out of equilibrium. Advantages rely on the implementation of various applications based on two-color schemes and, more specifically, include the possibility of acquiring two-dimensional frequency maps, measuring electrons’ effective masses, or investigating electronic properties decoupled from the influence of the lattice. Particular focus will be put on experimental methods relying on photoelectric effect and photoelectron spectroscopy. In all experiments, we took advantage of one or more specific properties of HHG and FEL sources, such as controllable chirp, to study laser dressed states in helium, variable polarization, to study electronic properties of iron-based pnictides and ultrashort pulses (< 10 fs) to study the purely electronic dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenides. On the other hand, the study of the interface between a molecule and a topological insulator revealed some intrinsic limitations and physical drawbacks of the technique, such as spurious effects originating from the high power pulses, like multiphoton absorption and the space charge effect, or the reduction of experimental resolution when pushing for shorter and shorter pulse durations. Some disadvantages are also connected to the current state-of-the-art in the field of ultrashort laser systems, where a trade-off needs to be found between repetition rate and laser power. Finally, state-of-the-art experiments based on the ability to generate ultrashort pulses carrying orbital angular momentum in visible, near-infrared as well as extreme UV range will be presented. The use of these pulses opens the door to the investigation of new physical phenomena, such as probing magnetic vortices using extreme ultraviolet light from a free-electron laser or imprinting the spatial distribution of an ultrashort infrared pulse carrying orbital angular momentum onto a photoelectron wave packet.
Ključne besede: ultrafast lasers, two-color experiments, photoemission, high-order harmonic generation, free-electron lasers, hot-electrons dynamics, surface science, pump-probe photoemission, ultraviolet photoemission, orbital angular momentum
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.12.2020; Ogledov: 3031; Prenosov: 108
.pdf Celotno besedilo (19,78 MB)

Self-amplified photo-induced gap quenching in a correlated electron material
Mathias Stefan, Eich Steffen, Jurij Urbančič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Capturing the dynamic electronic band structure of a correlated material presents a powerful capability for uncovering the complex couplings between the electronic and structural degrees of freedom. When combined with ultrafast laser excitation, new phases of matter can result, since far-from-equilibrium excited states are instantaneously populated. Here, we elucidate a general relation between ultrafast non-equilibrium electron dynamics and the size of the characteristic energy gap in a correlated electron material. We show that carrier multiplication via impact ionization can be one of the most important processes in a gapped material, and that the speed of carrier multiplication critically depends on the size of the energy gap. In the case of the charge-density wave material 1T-TiSe 2 , our data indicate that carrier multiplication and gap dynamics mutually amplify each other, which explains—on a microscopic level—the extremely fast response of this material to ultrafast optical excitation. Self-amplified photo-induced gap quenching in a correlated electron material. Available from: [accessed Apr 20, 2017].
Ključne besede: high harmonic generation, charge-density wave material, 1T-TiSe2, non-equilibrium electron dynamics, ultrafast surface science
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.04.2017; Ogledov: 4998; Prenosov: 0
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