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1.
Search for EeV photon-induced events at the Telescope Array
I. Kharuk, R. U. Abbasi, Y. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We report on the updated results on the search for photon-like-induced events in the data, collected by Telescope Array's Surface Detectors during the last 14 years. In order to search for photon-like-induced events, we trained a neural network on Monte-Carlo simulated data to distinguish between the proton-induced and photon-induced air showers. Both reconstructed composition-sensitive parameters and raw signals registered by the Surface Detectors are used as input data for the neural network. The classification threshold was optimized to provide the strongest possible constraint on the photons' flux.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, neural network, machine learning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.10.2023; Ogledov: 1106; Prenosov: 6
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2.
Performance of the 433 m surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory
G. Silli, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic-ray observatory. While it was originally built to study the cosmic-ray flux above 10^18.5 eV, several enhancements have reduced this energy threshold. One such enhancement is a surface array composed of a triangular grid of 19 water-Cherenkov detectors separated by 433 m (SD-433) to explore the energies down to about 10^16 eV. We are developing two research lines employing the SD-433. Firstly, we will measure the energy spectrum in a region where previous experiments have shown evidence of the second knee. Secondly, we will search for ultra-high energy photons to study PeV cosmic-ray sources residing in the Galactic center. In this work, we introduce the SD-433 and we show that it is fully efficient above 5×10^16 eV for hadronic primaries with θ<45∘. Using seven years of data, we present the parametrization of the lateral distribution function of measured signals. Finally, we show that an angular resolution of 1.8∘ (0.5∘) can be attained at the lowest (highest) primary energies. Our study lays the goundmark for measurements in the energy range above 10^16 eV by utilizing the SD-433 and thus expanding the scientific output of the Auger surface detector.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, SD-433, indirect detection, surface detection, low energy extension, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, photons, multimessenger
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 1063; Prenosov: 5
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3.
Insight Into Lightning Initiation via Downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash Observations at Telescope Array
J. Remington, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Due to the difficulty of direct measurement of the thunderstorm environment, in particular the electric field strengths, the initial stages of lightning breakdown remain mysterious. The 1994 discovery of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) and their implications for megaVolt potentials within thunderclouds has proved to be a valuable source of information about the breakdown process. The Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) --- a 700 km^2 scintillator array in Western Utah, U.S.A --- coupled with a lightning mapping array, fast sferic (field change) sensor and broadband interferometer, has provided unique insight into the properties of this energetic radiation and of lightning initiation in general. In particular, microsecond-scale timing comparisons have clearly established that downward TGFs occur during strong initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) of downward negative cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes. In turn, the IBPs are produced by streamer-based fast negative breakdown. Investigations into downward TGFs with the TASD have significantly evolved with recent upgrades to lightning instrumentation. A second state-of-the-art broadband interferometer allows high-resolution stereo observation of lightning development. A high-speed optical video camera, set to be deployed in Spring 2021, will allow simultaneous observation of the visual component of lightning responsible for TGF production. Finally, a suite of ground based static electric field mills will provide new information on the large-scale properties of the thunderstorms in which downward TGFs arise. In this talk, we present the most recent TGF observations from the Telescope Array.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, gamma-rays, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.10.2023; Ogledov: 941; Prenosov: 6
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4.
A search for ultra-high-energy photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory exploiting air-shower universality
P. Savina, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory is the most sensitive detector to primary photons with energies above ∼ 0.2 EeV. It measures extensive air showers using a hybrid technique that combines a fluorescence detector (FD) with a ground array of particle detectors (SD). The signatures of a photon-induced air shower are a larger atmospheric depth at the shower maximum (Xmax) and a steeper lateral distribution function, along with a lower number of muons with respect to the bulk of hadron-induced background. Using observables measured by the FD and SD, three photon searches in different energy bands are performed. In particular, between threshold energies of 1–10 EeV, a new analysis technique has been developed by combining the FD-based measurement of Xmax with the SD signal through a parameter related to its muon content, derived from the universality of the air showers. This technique has led to a better photon/hadron separation and, consequently, to a higher search sensitivity, resulting in a tighter upper limit than before. The outcome of this new analysis is presented here, along with previous results in the energy ranges below 1 EeV and above 10 EeV. From the data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory in about 15 years of operation, the most stringent constraints on the fraction of photons in the cosmic flux are set over almost three decades in energy.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface array, hybrid detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 1092; Prenosov: 5
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5.
Downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes at the Pierre Auger Observatory?
R. Colalillo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the Pierre Auger Observatory, designed primarily to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, phenomena related to atmospheric electricity are also observed. Particularly, events have been detected with the surface detector, characterized by long-lasting signals (tens of microseconds) and event footprints much larger (up to 200 km2) than those produced by the highest energy cosmic rays. Moreover, some of them appear to be accompanied by smaller events occurring in the same area within about 1 ms and probably produced by the same phenomenon. A previously reported correlation with the World Wide Lightning Location Network, as well as the observation of very low-altitude clouds, confirm that such events are related to thunderstorms. An ad-hoc reconstruction points to high-energy particles being produced very close to the ground, suggesting that they originate from electrons accelerated to relativistic energies in strong electric fields inside low clouds, as is the case for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes above thunderstorms. A clear explanation of the observed phenomenon is hindered by two facts. One is that the rate of such events, detected serendipitously, is very small (less than 2 events/year) and decreases further after optimization of the surface detector trigger for low-energy shower-events. The second is that most events show a puzzling lack of signals in the central part of the footprint. We have studied in detail both effects and will present such studies here. We developed a strategy for a dedicated trigger to enhance the detection efficiency for these events associated with atmospheric-electricity events.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, electrons, gamma-ray flashes, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 925; Prenosov: 6
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6.
Follow-up Search for UHE Photons from Gravitational Wave Sources with the Pierre Auger Observatory
P. Ruehl, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Multimessenger astronomy has become increasingly important during the past decade. Some astronomical objects have already been successfully observed in the light of multiple messenger signals, allowing for a much deeper understanding of their physical properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory has taken part in multimessenger astronomy with an exhaustive exploration of the ultra-high-energy sky. In this contribution, for the first time, a search for UHE photons from the sources of gravitational waves is presented. Interactions with the cosmic background radiation fields are expected to attenuate any possible flux of ultra-high-energy photons from distant sources and a non-negligible background of air shower events with hadronic origin makes an unambiguous identification of primary photons a challenging task. In the analysis presented here, a selection strategy is applied to both GW sources and air shower events aiming to provide maximum sensitivity to a possible photon signal. At the same time, a window is kept open for hypothetical new-physics processes, which might allow for much larger interaction lengths of photons in the extragalactic medium. Preliminary results on the UHE photon fluence from a selection of GW sources, including the binary neutron star merger GW170817 are presented.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, photons, cosmic rays, anisotropy, gravitational waves, multimessenger
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 950; Prenosov: 6
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7.
Science with the Global Cosmic-ray Observatory (GCOS)
Rafael Alves Batista, M. Ahlers, Pedro Assis, Markus Gottfried Battisti, J. A. Bellido, S. Bhatnagar, K. Bismark, Teresa Bister, Martina Boháčová, Serguei Vorobiov, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Global Cosmic-ray Observatory (GCOS) is a proposed large-scale observatory for studying ultra-high-energy cosmic particles, including ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), photons, and neutrinos. Its primary goal is to characterise the properties of the highest-energy particles in Nature with unprecedented accuracy, and to identify their elusive sources. With an aperture at least a ten-fold larger than existing observatories, this next-generation facility should start operating after 2030, when present-day detectors will gradually cease their activities. Here we briefly review the scientific case motivating GCOS. We present the status of the project, preliminary ideas for its design, and some estimates of its capabilities.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, UHE photons, UHE neutrinos, the Global Cosmic-ray Observatory project
Objavljeno v RUNG: 27.09.2023; Ogledov: 1406; Prenosov: 5
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8.
Searching for very-high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave events with the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Barbara Patricelli, Saptashwa Bhattacharyya, Barbara MARČUN, Judit Pérez Romero, Samo Stanič, Veronika Vodeb, Serguei Vorobiov, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Marko Zavrtanik, Danilo Zavrtanik, Miha Živec, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The detection of electromagnetic (EM) emission following the gravitational wave (GW) event GW170817 opened the era of multi-messenger astronomy with GWs and provided the first direct evidence that at least a fraction of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are progenitors of short Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). GRBs are also expected to emit very-high energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) photons, as proven by the recent MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations. One of the challenges for future multi-messenger observations will be the detection of such VHE emission from GRBs in association with GWs. In the next years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a key instrument for the EM follow-up of GW events in the VHE range, owing to its unprecedented sensitivity, rapid response, and capability to monitor a large sky area via scan-mode operation. We present the CTA GW follow-up program, with a focus on the searches for short GRBs possibly associated with BNS mergers. We investigate the possible observational strategies and we outline the prospects for the detection of VHE EM counterparts to transient GW events.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array, very-high energy photons, gravitational waves, gravitational wave counterparts
Objavljeno v RUNG: 19.09.2023; Ogledov: 1234; Prenosov: 6
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9.
Search for photons above ▫$10^19$▫ eV with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
P. Abreu, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We use the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory to search for air showers initiated by photons with an energy above 10[sup]19 eV. Photons in the zenith angle range from 30 deg. to 60 deg. can be identified in the overwhelming background of showers initiated by charged cosmic rays through the broader time structure of the signals induced in the water-Cherenkov detectors of the array and the steeper lateral distribution of shower particles reaching ground. Applying the search method to data collected between January 2004 and June 2020, upper limits at 95% CL are set to an E[sup]-2 diffuse flux of ultra-high energy photons above 10[sup]19 eV, 2 × 10[sup]19 eV and 4 × 10[sup]19 eV amounting to 2.11 × 10[sup]-3, 3.12 × 10[sup]-4 and 1.72 × 10[sup]-4 km-2 sr-1 yr-1, respectively. While the sensitivity of the present search around 2 × 10[sup]19 eV approaches expectations of cosmogenic photon fluxes in the case of a pure-proton composition, it is one order of magnitude above those from more realistic mixed-composition models. The inferred limits have also implications for the search of super-heavy dark matter that are discussed and illustrated.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, UHE photons, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, water Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.08.2023; Ogledov: 1014; Prenosov: 12
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