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1.
The second knee in the cosmic ray spectrum observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Gabriel Brichetto Orquera, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The determination of the energy spectrum features with low systematic uncertainty is crucial for interpreting the nature of cosmic rays. In this study, we conducted a measurement of the energy spectrum at the Pierre Auger Observatory using a surface detector with a calorimetric energy scale indirectly set by a fluorescence detector. The surface detector consists of an array of water-Cherenkov detectors that extends over 3000 km^2 with 1500m spacing. Additionally, two nested arrays of the same kind with 750m and 433m spacing were utilized to lower the energy threshold of the measurements. This contribution presents, for the first time, the spectrum measured with the 433m array, which reduces the energy threshold down to 63 PeV, nearly half the energy at which we previously published a steepening using the 750m array. Our measurements include a characterization of the spectral features of the flux steepening around 230 PeV, known as the second-knee. The study benefits from a nearly 100% duty cycle and geometrical exposure. Notably, this is the first simultaneous measurement of the second knee energy and spectral indexes before and after the break, using a surface detector with an energy scale predominantly independent of air shower simulations and assumptions regarding hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, hadronic interaction model, water-Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 199; Prenosov: 4
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2.
Auger@TA : an Auger-like surface detector micro-array embedded within the Telescope Array Project
S. Mayotte, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) and the Telescope Array Project (TA) are the two largest ultra-highenergy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatories in the world. One obstacle in pursuing full-sky UHECR physics is the apparent discrepancy in flux measured by the two experiments. This could be due to astrophysical differences as Auger and TA observe the Southern and Northern skies, respectively. However, the scintillation detectors used by TA have very different sensitivity to the various components of extensive air showers than the water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) used by Auger. The discrepancy could also be due to systematic effects arising from the differing detector designs and reconstruction methods. The primary goal of the Auger@TA working group is to cross-calibrate the approaches of the two observatories using in-situ methods. This is achieved by placing a self-triggering micro-array, which consists of eight Auger surface detector stations, with both WCDs and AugerPrime scintillators, within the TA array. Seven of the WCDs use a 1-PMT prototype configuration and form a hexagon with the Auger spacing of 1.5 km. The eighth station uses a standard 3-PMT Auger WCD, placed with a TA station at the center of the hexagon to form a triplet for high-statistics, low-uncertainty, cross-calibration of instrumentation. Deployment of the micro-array took place between September 2022 and August 2023, with data-taking foreseen by the Fall of 2023. Details on the instrumentation and deployment of the micro-array, as well as its expected performance, trigger efficiencies, and event rate will be presented. First data from individual stations will also be shown.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Telescope Array, AugerPrime, scintillators, water-Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 203; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,50 MB)
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3.
Measurement of the mass composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Eric Mayotte, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: After nearly 20 years of data-taking, the measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory represent the largest collection of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) data so far assembled from a single instrument. Exploring this data set led to a deeper understanding of the UHECR flux and many surprises. In particular, studies aiming to investigate and leverage the mass composition of UHECRs have played an important role in empowering discovery. This contribution will present an overview of the analyses of primary mass composition carried out during the first phase of the Observatory. The overview includes analyses derived from measurements made by the surface, fluorescence, and radio detectors covering energies ranging from 0.1 EeV up to 100 EeV. Special attention will be given to recent advances and results to provide a complete picture of UHECR mass composition at the Observatory as it moves to its next phase, AugerPrime. Additionally, specific updates will be given to studies focusing on mass trends from surface detector rise-times, �max dependent anisotropies, and UHECR beam characterization using the correlation between �max and signal amplitudes at the ground.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AERA, water-Cherenkov detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 216; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)
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4.
Measuring the muon content of inclined air showers using AERA and the water-Cherenkov detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Marvin Gottowik, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In this proceeding, we present a proof of principle study for estimating the number of muons of inclined air showers proportional to their energy using hybrid radio and particle detection. We use the radiation energy of an air shower to estimate its electromagnetic energy and measure the muon number independently with the water-Cherenkov detector array (WCD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We select 32 high-quality events in almost six years of data with electromagnetic energies above 4 EeV to ensure full efficiency for the WCD reconstruction. The muon content in data is found to be compatible with the one for an iron primary as predicted by current-generation hadronic interaction models. This can be interpreted as a deficit of muons in simulations as a lighter mass composition is expected from �max measurements. Such a muon deficit was already observed in previous analyses of the Auger collaboration and is now confirmed for the first time with radio data. Currently, this analysis is limited by low statistics due to the small area of AERA of 17 km^2 and the high energy threshold. We will outline the advantages of using radio detection instead of the Auger Fluorescence Detector in future analyses allowing for high-statistic measurements of the muon content as a function of energy.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, AERA, water-Cherenkov detector
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 188; Prenosov: 6
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5.
Modelling water for calorimetry of proteins
Knarik Yeritsyan, Artem Badasyan, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a powerful technique used to study the thermal stability and unfolding of proteins. DSC provides the excess heat capacity profile and is used to study the thermodynamics of a given protein. By fitting DSC data to the model, researchers can obtain valuable information about the thermodynamics of protein folding and unfolding, which can help them better understand protein structure, stability, and function. Based on Hamiltonian representation of ZB model and using the solvent effects we derived an expression for heat capacity in proteins and successfuly fit it to experimental data. As we show, our model provides a better fit to experimental data, as compared to the 2-state model. The model we propose takes into account also water effects and we show that it fits better to experimental data giving inter- and intra-molecular H-bonding energies instead of reporting only one total enthalpy.
Ključne besede: Zimm-Bragg model, water model, helix-coil transition, protein folding, differential scanning calorimetry
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.10.2023; Ogledov: 557; Prenosov: 0
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6.
Search for primary photons at tens of PeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Nicolás González, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The observation of primary photons with energies around 10[sup]16 eV would be particularly interesting after the discovery of Galactic gamma-ray sources with spectra extending into the PeV range. Since photons are connected to the acceleration of charged particles, searches for photons enhance the multi-messenger understanding of cosmic-ray sources as well as of transient astrophysical phenomena, while offering wealthy connections to neutrino astronomy and dark matter. Additionally, diffuse photon fluxes are expected from cosmic-ray interactions with Galactic matter and background radiation fields. Previously, the energy domain between 1 PeV and 200 PeV was only explored from the Northern Hemisphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest astroparticle experiment in operation and, thanks to its location, has a sizable exposure to the Southern sky, including the Galactic center region. In this contribution, we present the first search for photons from the Southern hemisphere between 50 and 200 PeV exploiting the Auger data acquired during ∼4 yr of operation. We describe the method to discriminate photons against the dominating hadronic background; it is based on the measurements of air showers taken with the low-energy extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory composed by 19 water-Cherenkov detectors spanning ∼ 2km[sup]2 and an Underground Muon Detector. The search for a diffuse flux of photons is presented and its results are interpreted according to theoretical model predictions. This study extends the range of Auger photon searches to almost four decades in energy.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, cosmic rays, photons, water-Cherenkov detectors, underground muon detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 528; Prenosov: 6
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7.
Spin model of water and post-processing of protein folding experiments
Artem Badasyan, Knarik Yeritsyan, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The presence of several distinct minima in nearest-neighbor potentials in polymers makes it possible to describe polymer conformations in terms of discrete isomeric states, naturally leading to spin language. Using this general approach, a decade ago we have suggested the Hamiltonian formulation for the Zimm and Bragg model of protein conformations [1,2]. Later we have augmented the model by an oversimplified spin model for water, resulting in both cold and hot denaturations [3]. We construct the Statistical Mechanics for the model and get access to its Thermodynamics. Resulting order parameter and specific heat expressions are successfully fit to available experimental data [4]. Thanks to solid and traceable theoretical foundations, the procedure provides better quality fits as compared to the state-of-the-art two-state model, routinely used to process protein folding experiments.
Ključne besede: spin model, water, protein folding
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.09.2023; Ogledov: 639; Prenosov: 3
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8.
Search for photons above ▫$10^19$▫ eV with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
P. Abreu, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We use the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory to search for air showers initiated by photons with an energy above 10[sup]19 eV. Photons in the zenith angle range from 30 deg. to 60 deg. can be identified in the overwhelming background of showers initiated by charged cosmic rays through the broader time structure of the signals induced in the water-Cherenkov detectors of the array and the steeper lateral distribution of shower particles reaching ground. Applying the search method to data collected between January 2004 and June 2020, upper limits at 95% CL are set to an E[sup]-2 diffuse flux of ultra-high energy photons above 10[sup]19 eV, 2 × 10[sup]19 eV and 4 × 10[sup]19 eV amounting to 2.11 × 10[sup]-3, 3.12 × 10[sup]-4 and 1.72 × 10[sup]-4 km-2 sr-1 yr-1, respectively. While the sensitivity of the present search around 2 × 10[sup]19 eV approaches expectations of cosmogenic photon fluxes in the case of a pure-proton composition, it is one order of magnitude above those from more realistic mixed-composition models. The inferred limits have also implications for the search of super-heavy dark matter that are discussed and illustrated.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, UHE photons, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, water Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.08.2023; Ogledov: 550; Prenosov: 7
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9.
Enzyme-immobilized hierarchically porous covalent organic framework biocomposite for catalytic degradation of broad-range emerging pollutants in water
Nada Elmerhi, Khadega Al-Maqdi, Khawlah Athamneh, Abdul Khayum Mohammed, Tina Škorjanc, Felipe Gándara, Jesus Raya, Pascal Simon, Olivier Siri, Ali Trabolsi, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Efficient enzyme immobilization is crucial for the successful commercialization of large-scale enzymatic water treatment. However, issues such as lack of high enzyme loading coupled with enzyme leaching present challenges for the widespread adoption of immobilized enzyme systems. The present study describes the development and bioremediation application of an enzyme biocomposite employing a cationic macrocycle-based covalent organic framework (COF) with hierarchical porosity for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The intrinsic hierarchical porous features of the azacalix[4]arene-based COF (ACA-COF) allowed for a maximum HRP loading capacity of 0.76 mg/mg COF with low enzyme leaching (<5.0%). The biocomposite, HRP@ACA-COF, exhibited exceptional thermal stability (~200% higher relative activity than the free enzyme), and maintained ~60% enzyme activity after five cycles. LCMSMS analyses confirmed that the HRP@ACA-COF system was able to achieve >99% degradation of seven diverse types of emerging pollutants (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, paracetamol, caffeic acid, methylparaben, furosemide, sulfamethoxazole, and salicylic acid)in under an hour. The described enzyme-COF system offers promise for efficient wastewater bioremediation applications.
Ključne besede: covalent organic frameworks, enzymes, emerging pollutants, water purification, biocomposite
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.08.2023; Ogledov: 665; Prenosov: 3
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10.
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