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1.
Investigating the use of secondary organic aerosol as seed particles in simulation chamber experiments
Jaqueline F Hamilton, M Rami Alfarra, Kevin P Wyche, Martyn W Ward, Alistair C Lewis, Gordon B McFiggans, Nicholas Good, Paul S Monks, Timo Carr, Iain R White, Ruth M Purvis, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The use of β-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol particles as seeds for smog chamber simulations has been investigated. A series of experiments were carried out in the Manchester photochemical chamber as part of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project to study the effect of seed particles on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from limonene photo-oxidation. Rather than use a conventional seed aerosol containing ammonium sulfate or diesel particles, a method was developed to use in-situ chamber generated seed particles from β-caryophyllene photo-oxidation, which were then diluted to a desired mass loading (in this case 4-13 μg m-3). Limonene was then introduced into the chamber and oxidised, with the formation of SOA seen as a growth in the size of oxidised organic seed particles from 150 to 325 nm mean diameter. The effect of the partitioning of limonene oxidation products onto the seed aerosol was assessed using aerosol mass spectrometry during the experiment and the percentage of m/z 44, an indicator of degree of oxidation, increased from around 5 to 8 %. The hygroscopicity of the aerosol also changed, with the growth factor for 200 nm particles increasing from less than 1.05 to 1.25 at 90 % RH. The detailed chemical composition of the limonene SOA could be extracted from the complex β-caryophyllene matrix using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC× GC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. High resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS) was used to determine exact molecular formulae of the seed and the limonene modified aerosol. The average O:C ratio was seen to increase from 0.32 to 0.37 after limonene oxidation products had condensed onto the organic seed.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Aerosol, Aerosol formation, Smog chamber
Objavljeno: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 1212; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,96 MB)

2.
What effect does VOC sampling time have on derived OH reactivity?
Hannah Sonderfeld, Iain R White, Iain C A Goodall, James R Hopkins, Alistair C Lewis, Ralf Koppmann, Paul S Monks, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: State-of-the-art techniques allow for rapid measurements of total OH reactivity. Unknown sinks of OH and oxidation processes in the atmosphere have been attributed to what has been termed ĝ€missingĝ€ OH reactivity. Often overlooked are the differences in timescales over which the diverse measurement techniques operate. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as sinks of OH are often measured by gas chromatography (GC) methods which provide low-frequency measurements on a timescale of hours, while sampling times are generally only a few minutes. Here, the effect of the sampling time and thus the contribution of unmeasured VOC variability on OH reactivity is investigated. Measurements of VOC mixing ratios by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) conducted during two field campaigns (ClearfLo and PARADE) in an urban and a semi-rural environment were used to calculate OH reactivity. VOCs were selected to represent variability for different compound classes. Data were averaged over different time intervals to simulate lower time resolutions and were then compared to the mean hourly OH reactivity. The results show deviations in the range of 1 to 25%. The observed impact of VOC variability is found to be greater for the semi-rural site.The selected compounds were scaled by the contribution of their compound class to the total OH reactivity from VOCs based on concurrent gas chromatography measurements conducted during the ClearfLo campaign. Prior to being scaled, the variable signal of aromatic compounds results in larger deviations in OH reactivity for short sampling intervals compared to oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). However, once scaled with their lower share during the ClearfLo campaign, this effect was reduced. No seasonal effect on the OH reactivity distribution across different VOCs was observed at the urban site.
Najdeno v: osebi
Ključne besede: Hydroxyl radical, Atmospheric chemistry, Box model
Objavljeno: 18.07.2019; Ogledov: 1274; Prenosov: 0

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