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21.
Possible interpretations of the joint observations of UHECR arrival directions using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory
Mikhail Kuznetsov, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Various hints for anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been reported. Still, our poor knowledge about extragalactic and Galactic magnetic fields and about the UHECR mass composition makes it non-trivial to interpret such results in terms of possible models of UHECR sources. In this work, we apply the same analyses that have been performed on the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array UHECR data to a variety of Monte Carlo simulations generated according to many different combinations of hypotheses about the sources, composition and magnetic deflections of UHECRs. We find that only some of these models can yield results similar to those obtained with the real data.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, anisotropy, galactic magnetic fields, telescope array, arrival directions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 738; Prenosov: 6
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22.
Update on the searches for anisotropies in UHECR arrival directions with the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Lorenzo Caccianiga, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), particles from outer space with energies �≥1 EeV, is still unknown, though the near-isotropy of their arrival direction distribution excludes a dominant Galactic contribution, and interactions with background photons prevent them from travelling cosmologically large distances. This suggests that their sources must be searched for in nearby galaxy groups and clusters. Deflections by intergalactic and Galactic magnetic fields are expected to hinder such searches but not preclude them altogether. So far, the only anisotropy detected with statistical significance ≥ 5� is a modulation in right ascension in the data from the Pierre Auger Observatory at �≥8 EeV interpretable as a 7% dipole moment. Various hints for higher-energy, smaller-scale anisotropies have been reported. UHECR arrival direction data from both the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array experiment have been searched for anisotropies by a working group with members from both collaborations; combining the two datasets requires a cross-calibration procedure due to the different systematic uncertainties on energy measurements but allows us to perform analyses that are less model-dependent than what can be done with partial sky coverage. We report a significant dipole pointing away from the Galactic Center and a ∼4.6� anisotropy found when comparing the directions of UHECRs with a catalog of starburst galaxies.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, anisotropy, galactic magnetic fields, telescope array, arrival directions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 717; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,36 MB)
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23.
Study of downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Roberta Colalillo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory, consisting of 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors (WCDs), covers 3000 km2 in the Argentinian pampa. Thanks to the high efficiency of WCDs in detecting gammarays, it represents a unique instrument for studying downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) over a large area. Peculiar events, likely related to downward TGFs, were detected at the Auger Observatory. Their experimental signature and time evolution are very different from those of a shower produced by an ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray. They happen in coincidence with low thunderclouds and lightning, and their large deposited energy at the ground is compatible with that of a standard downward TGF with the source a few kilometers above the ground. A new trigger algorithm to increase the TGF-like event statistics was installed in the whole array. The study of the performance of the new trigger system during the lightning season is ongoing and will provide a handle to develop improved algorithms to implement in the Auger upgraded electronic boards. The available data sample, even if small, can give important clues about the TGF production models, in particular, the shape of WCD signals. Moreover, the SD allows us to observe more than one point in the TGF beam, providing information on the emission angle.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, surface detectors, extensive air shower, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 728; Prenosov: 6
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24.
Measurement of UHECR energy spectrum with the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Douglas R. Bergman, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is of crucial importance to clarify their origin, acceleration mechanisms, and propagation processes in inter-Galactic and Galactic space. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina and the Telescope Array (TA) in the US have reported their measurements of UHECR energy spectra observed in the southern and northern hemisphere, respectively. The Auger–TA energy spectrum working group was established in 2012 and has been working to understand the uncertainties in energy scale in both experiments, their systematic differences, and differences in the shape of the spectra. In previous works, we reported that there was an overall agreement of the energy spectra measured by the two observatories below 10 EeV while at higher energies, a remaining significant difference was observed in the common declination band. This time we revisit the energy scales of both experiments, including the fluorescence yield and the invisible energy corrections. Another new approach to investigate a possible source of energy systematic difference is to reconstruct simulated showers of common energy and zenith angle using the detector simulation and reconstruction programs of both experiments that are independently tuned and optimized for data from their own detectors. The results will be presented at the conference.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Telescope Array, energy spectrum
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 820; Prenosov: 5
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25.
Studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays and proton-proton interaction cross-sections at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Olena Tkachenko, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In this work, we present an estimate of the cosmic-ray mass composition from the distributions of the depth of the shower maximum (�max) measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We discuss the sensitivity of the mass composition measurements to the uncertainties in the properties of the hadronic interactions, particularly in the predictions of the particle interaction cross-sections. For this purpose, we adjust the fractions of cosmic-ray mass groups to fit the data with �max distributions from air shower simulations. We modify the proton-proton cross-sections at ultra-high energies, and the corresponding air shower simulations with rescaled nucleus-air cross-sections are obtained via Glauber theory. We compare the energydependent composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays obtained for the different extrapolations of the proton-proton cross-sections from low-energy accelerator data.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, extensive air shower, hadronic interactions, cross-section, Xmax
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 783; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (917,40 KB)
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26.
The second knee in the cosmic ray spectrum observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Gabriel Brichetto Orquera, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The determination of the energy spectrum features with low systematic uncertainty is crucial for interpreting the nature of cosmic rays. In this study, we conducted a measurement of the energy spectrum at the Pierre Auger Observatory using a surface detector with a calorimetric energy scale indirectly set by a fluorescence detector. The surface detector consists of an array of water-Cherenkov detectors that extends over 3000 km^2 with 1500m spacing. Additionally, two nested arrays of the same kind with 750m and 433m spacing were utilized to lower the energy threshold of the measurements. This contribution presents, for the first time, the spectrum measured with the 433m array, which reduces the energy threshold down to 63 PeV, nearly half the energy at which we previously published a steepening using the 750m array. Our measurements include a characterization of the spectral features of the flux steepening around 230 PeV, known as the second-knee. The study benefits from a nearly 100% duty cycle and geometrical exposure. Notably, this is the first simultaneous measurement of the second knee energy and spectral indexes before and after the break, using a surface detector with an energy scale predominantly independent of air shower simulations and assumptions regarding hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, hadronic interaction model, water-Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 722; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,48 MB)
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27.
The performances of the upgraded surface detector stations of AugerPrime
Fabio Convenga, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is an array of 1,600 stations using a water Cherenkov detector (WCD) for particle detection. The array is undergoing a major upgrade known as AugerPrime that involves adding scintillator surface detectors (SSDs) and radio antennas to the existing WCDs. Each WCD is also equipped with a smaller photomultiplier tube added to the original ones. As part of the upgrade, underground muon detectors are being installed in an area with a higher density of surface detector stations. AugerPrime required the development of new electronics to process the signals from all the new detectors and handle a higher sampling rate, a more precise GPS receiver, an extended dynamic range, higher processing capacity, and improved monitoring systems and memory. The deployment of the SSDs on top of each surface detector station is currently completed together with the deployment of the new electronics. This contribution will present the first data from the upgraded stations, emphasizing the performances of the SSDs and the new electronics.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, scintillation surface detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 770; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,24 MB)
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28.
Radio interferometry applied to air showers recorded by the Auger engineering radio array
H. Schoorlemmer, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: A new radio interferometric technique was recently developed that takes into account time lags caused by the three-dimensional dependency of the refractive index in the atmosphere. It enables us to track the extensive air shower while it propagates through the atmosphere. Using this technique, properties of the air shower can be estimated, like the depth of maximum and the axis of propagation. In order to apply this method, strict constraints on the time-synchronisation between radio antennas in an array must be satisfied. In this contribution, we show that the Auger Engineering Radio Array can meet these timing criteria by operating a time reference beacon. We will show how this enables us to reconstruct air shower properties using the radio interferometric technique.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Auger engineering radio array, radio interferometry
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 871; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,46 MB)
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29.
Measurements of cloud base height and coverage using elastic multiangle lidar scans at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Juan Pallotta, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Cloud features significantly affect the reconstruction of extensive air showers, and their characterization plays an important role in atmospheric monitoring. A multi-directional characterization of the cloud pattern is provided by a combination of several instruments of the atmospheric monitoring network at the Pierre Auger Observatory (Mendoza Province, Argentina). In this work, we present the results of an analysis of the cloud measurements using data taken from 2007 to 2022 by the elastic lidars positioned in the proximity of the fluorescence detector (FD) sites. These systems provide hourly measurements of cloud coverage and base height above FD. The ansatz of horizontal homogeneity of cloud structures is tested by comparing the hourly measurements of cloud base height and coverage done simultaneously at different lidar locations. These results allow a detailed description of cloud patterns observed above the array throughout the whole period. The variation of cloud parameters is shown and quantitative conclusions about cloud homogeneity across the array of the Pierre Auger Observatory are given.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detectors, fluorescence detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 715; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,24 MB)
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30.
Deep-learning-based cosmic-ray mass reconstruction using the water-Cherenkov and scintillation detectors of AugerPrime
Niklas Langner, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the highest energies, cosmic rays can be detected only indirectly by the extensive air showers they create upon interaction with the Earth’s atmosphere. While high-statistics measurements of the energy and arrival directions of cosmic rays can be performed with large surface detector arrays like the Pierre Auger Observatory, the determination of the cosmic-ray mass on an event-by-event basis is challenging. Meaningful physical observables in this regard include the depth of maximum of air-shower profiles, which is related to the mean free path of the cosmic ray in the atmosphere and the shower development, as well as the number of muons that rises with the number of nucleons in a cosmic-ray particle. In this contribution, we present an approach to determine both of these observables from combined measurements of water-Cherenkov detectors and scintillation detectors, which are part of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Observatory. To characterize the time-dependent signals of the two detectors both separately as well as in correlation to each other, we apply deep learning techniques. Transformer networks employing the attention mechanism are especially well-suited for this task. We present the utilized network concepts and apply them to simulations to determine the precision of the event-by-event mass reconstruction that can be achieved by the combined measurements of the depth of shower maximum and the number of muons.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, muons, extensive air showers, surface detectors, AugerPrime, deep learning techiniques
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 626; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,93 MB)
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