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Occurence of biogenic amine - producing lactic acid bacteria in Refošk grape and wine
Jelena Topić Božič, Jan Reščič, Martina Bergant Marušič, Darja Lisjak, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Lorena Butinar, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally present in grapes, musts and wines. During malolactic fermentation, besides the beneficial conversion of L-malic to L-lactic acid, LAB can form also other compounds like biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are formed through decarboxylation of corresponding amino acids, through the action of enzymes. Consumption of food containing BAs can lead to food poisoning such as histamine poisoning. Histamine, the most studied BA, is known to cause headaches, oedema, vomiting. In the last years, BAs associated pathways have been described as strain dependent and not as species dependent. Because of the high variability of microorganisms to decarboxylase amino acids, the detection of bacteria that have the possibility to transform precursor amino acid into BAs is very important in order to estimate the risk of BAs accumulation in wines. Since in previous years during project AGROTUR I we detected the higher BA content in some wines, we decided to focus on the presence of BA-producing LAB in Refošk grapes and wines. Therefore, during AGROTUR II project LAB collection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria was set-up by isolating LAB from Refošk grapes and wines, originated from the grape growing cross-border region Karst (Slovenia). Over 600 isolates were obtained using MRS medium with added cycloheximide and 2% tomato juice. In parallel, also selective enrichment was performed using MRS medium described above with additionally added 5% ethanol. BA-producing LAB were primarily detected in microtiter-plate format using the decarboxylase screening medium with added amino acids (histidine, lysine, ornithine or tyrosine), which enable us to identify histamine-, cadaverine-, ornithine and tyrosine-producing LAB. Selected representatives from each BA-producing LAB groups were further on confirmed with chromatographic analysis (HPLC) and molecular methods (multiplex PCR method). BA-producing LAB were in majority represented by thyramin-producers, thereafter followed cadaverine-producers, with putrescine and histamine producers being the least presented. This screening of the BA-producing LAB is also incorporated in our on-going accurate selection of LAB starters for potential production of Refošk wines.
Keywords: biogenic amines, lactic acid bacteria, refošk, grape, wine
Published in RUNG: 22.01.2020; Views: 3660; Downloads: 0
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Yeasts and wine colour
Jelena Topić Božič, Olga Butinar-Čeh, Dorota Korte, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, 2019, review article

Keywords: yeast, Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces, wine colour, pyranoanthocyanins
Published in RUNG: 20.12.2019; Views: 4441; Downloads: 0
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Recovery of bioactive components from fruit processing wastes
Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: processing wastes, green extraction methods, polyphenols
Published in RUNG: 23.08.2019; Views: 3270; Downloads: 1
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Modulation of Pinot Noir wine colour by yeast selection
Jelena Topić Božič, Lorena Butinar, Dorota Korte, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: yeast, HCDC activity, wine colour, Pinot Noir, pyranoanthocyanins
Published in RUNG: 27.05.2019; Views: 3711; Downloads: 0
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Characterization of lactic bacteria for biogenic amine formation
Jelena Topic, Lorena Butinar, Martina Bergant Marušič, Dorota Korte, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, 2018, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: Biogenic amines are compounds present in many different foods and beverages (wine, beer, dairy products, fermented vegetables and soy products, fish, etc.). Their presence in foodstuff is a result of a microbial action during storage and ageing. The most important are histamine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine and tryptamine, which can induce undesirable physiological effects in humans. They are formed through decarboxylation of corresponding amino acids, through the action of enzymes. Consumption of food containing biogenic amines can lead to food poisoning such as histamine poisoning. Histamine, the most studied biogenic amine, is known to cause headaches, oedema, vomiting, etc. [1]–[4]. Monitoring of the content of biogenic amines in foods is of concern for public health in their relation to the food safety, food spoilage and food intolerance. Because microorganisms are used in food productions as starters and biopreservers, characterization of microorganisms for their ability to produce biogenic amines is equally important. Lactic acid bacteria are often used as biopreservers as they can produce antimicrobial metabolites and antifungal peptides. Some strains can also produce undesirable biogenic amines [5]. In order to use lactic acid bacteria as starters or biopreservers, the selection of strains that would not produce biogenic amines is necessary. When considering studies of biogenic amines in foods, focus should be on developing new or improving analysis methods for biogenic amines detection. Secondly, the connections between microorganisms capable of producing biogenic amines and the content of biogenic amines in foods should be investigated [3]. The most widely technique used for quantification of biogenic amines in foodstuff is liquid chromatography, Alternatively to chromatographic techniques, other techniques such as enzymatic biosensors, ELISA and flow-injection analysis have also been employed. Sensors are interesting due to the fact that they do not require special instrumentations, and there is no need for sample clean-up and derivatization, which are the main drawback of chromatographic methods [4]. Detection of biogenic amines producing lactic bacteria is important due to the concerns for public health and there is a need for the early and rapid detection of such microorganisms. Most of the methods that are used for screening involved the measurement of amino acid-decarboxylase activity, although there were been some methods reported that used differential media and pH indicators. Nowadays, molecular methods are replacing culture methods. Molecular approaches are used to determine the presence or absence of genes responsible for biogenic amines formation. The main advantages of DNA hybridization and PCR methods are speed, simplicity, sensitivity and specificity as they allow detection of targeted genes. Culture independent methods which are based on PCR techniques are now regarded as most suitable methods for screening isolates [5]. [1] A. R. Shalaby, “Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health,” Food Res. Int., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 675–690, Oct. 1996. [2] J. M. Landete, S. Ferrer, and I. Pardo, “Biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria, acetic bacteria and yeast isolated from wine,” Food Control, vol. 18, pp. 1569–1574, 2007. [3] F. B. Erim, “Recent analytical approaches to the analysis of biogenic amines in food samples,” TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 52. pp. 239–247, 2013. [4] J. L. Ordóñez, A. M. Troncoso, M. D. C. García-Parrilla, and R. M. Callejón, “Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 939. pp. 10–25, 2016. [5] R. M. Elsanhoty and M. F. Ramadan, “Genetic screening of biogenic amines production capacity from some lactic acid bacteria strains,” Food Control, vol. 68, pp. 220–228, Oct. 2016.
Keywords: lactic bacteria, biogenic amines
Published in RUNG: 13.12.2018; Views: 3834; Downloads: 0
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Uporaba različnih kvasovk v pridelavi jabolčnega vina
Luka Koporec, 2018, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Kemijske in senzorične lastnosti vina so poleg genetskih danosti ter geo-klimatskih okoliščin odvisne tudi od strategije tehnologije pridelave, ki jo izbere vinar. V to strategijo spada tudi izbira seva kvasovke. Vinski trg postaja vse bolj zahteven in željan nečesa novega, zato vse več vinarjev poskuša pridobiti drugačne lastnosti vin z uporabo drugačnih sevov kvasovk, oziroma z uporabo kombinacij različnih vrst kvasovk. V diplomski nalogi smo preučevali vpliv različnih kombinacij kvasovk na potek fermentacije ter na osnovne kemijske in senzorične lastnosti pridelanega jabolčnega vina. Poskus je bil izveden na laboratorijski skali. Rezultati poskusa so pokazali, da različne vrste kvasovk različno vplivajo na senzorične lastnosti vina, nekoliko manj pa na kemijske lastnosti. Rezultati nakazujejo, da različne kvasovke različno hitro porabljajo sladkorje, kar vpliva tudi na hitrost poteka fermentacije. Ob opazovanju osnovnih kemijskih lastnostih smo opazili razlike med kvasovkami oz. kombinacijami kvasovk pri parametrih kot so hlapne kisline in reducirajoči sladkorji, medtem ko v vsebnosti alkohola in pH vrednostih končnih jabolčnih vin med obravnavanimi fermentacijami nismo opazili razlik. Senzorična analiza vonja in barve jabolčnih vin je potrdila vpliv kvasovk na barvo, intenzivnost, trajnost in vrsto vonja.
Keywords: jabolčno vino, ne-Saccharomyces kvasovke, potek fermentacije, kvasovke, senzorična analiza
Published in RUNG: 26.10.2018; Views: 7087; Downloads: 218
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Food production: wastes as potential source of bioactive compounds
Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, invited lecture at foreign university

Keywords: Food Production, lectures for students, reuse of wastes from plant processing
Published in RUNG: 11.09.2018; Views: 3585; Downloads: 0
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