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Theoretical and experimental aspects of numerosity and quantification in Lebanese Arabic : dissertation
Ali Al Moussaoui, 2021, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: A question that is receiving an increasing attention in linguistics research concerns the language components of counting. This topic is approached from syntactic, semantic and pragmatic points of view. While some accounts advocate for purely syntactic or semantic approaches of countability, other adopt hybrid accounts in which labor is divided between syntax and semantics. At the same time, research finds that there is a pragmatic component enriching the interpretation of countability and numerosity in language. This dissertation attempts to contribute into the lines of research concerned in the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects of countability with a focus on Lebanese Arabic (Henceforth LA), a language that has received little attention in the literature of counting. In this dissertation, a broken agreement pattern in LA between the cardinal numerals and the post-numeral counted noun phrases is examined on the basis of a syntactic-semantic model of countability developed by Stepanov and Stateva (2018). We argue that the current existing model can be used to account for the countability broken agreement pattern in LA when necessary modifications are applied to it. The success of this model in accounting for the numeral-noun-phrase agreement in LA is added to its success in similar missions in countability in Russian (Stepanov and Stateva 2018) and previously in Japanese (Watanabe 2010). The pragmatic component of countability in LA is also examined from the angle of pragmatic strengthening. The traditional difference between singular nominals and plural nominals which makes a distinction between domains of atoms and domains of sums is seriously challenged by current semantic and pragmatic research. The plural is found to be more complex than a simplistic view of more than one, and its interpretation has a pragmatic component which involves enriching the meaning of plurality against singularity. In our dissertation, we intend to examine an enriching pragmatic process of plural against duality in LA, a language that still preserves special morphological marking for duality. So, our research investigates the pragmatic strengthening of the plural morphology in LA against the dual morphology which results in at-least-three meaning of the plural. On the assumption that pragmatic reasoning contributes to the interpretation of plural nominals, we extend our research to the area of bilingual LA speakers who can be an ideal environment to look into the cognitive processes involved in the interaction between two linguistic systems that have diverging features pertaining to a given linguistic phenomenon, which is countability in our study. We predict crosslinguistic variation in the interpretation of plural morphology. If languages like English associate plural with an at-least-two meaning as a result of pragmatic enrichment with an anti-singularity inference, then, in languages that morphologically differentiate among singular, plural and dual number, the morphological plural is predicted to correspond to an at-least-three meaning. In this study, we ask whether the predicted variation in the interpretation of plural morphology among the non-dual and dual-featuring languages is a locus of negative pragmatic transfer of features from LA as a mother tongue and English/ French as foreign languages.
Keywords: countability, numerosity, Lebanese Arabic, countability model, negative pragmatic transfer, and foreign language exposure
Published in RUNG: 16.07.2021; Views: 3320; Downloads: 131
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Developmental aspects of Maximize Presupposition: a view from Slovenian
Penka Stateva, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: n this talk I will present the results of an experimental study of young children's acquisition and use of the pragmatic principle Maximize Presupposition in the context of the propositional attitude predicates (equivalent to) know and think. We use a felicity judgement task to test the ability of 5- and 7-year-old Slovenian-speaking children to derive the factive presupposition of know and the pragmatic inference trigerred by think in accord with Maximize Presupposition. The older group of children outperformed the younger group in both conditions manifesting a ceiling performance, while the younger group showed a more mixed pattern. Our results suggest that the anti-factivity inference is mastered on a par with the ability to derive the presupposition of factivity, as predicted by contemporary pragmatic theories. The discussion will also touch upon questions about the influence of bilingualism on developing pragmatic abilities, negative transfer in the domain of pragmatics and its dependence on cross-linguistic morpho-syntactic variation among translational equivalents.
Keywords: Maximize Presupposition, language acquisition, attitude verbs, Theory of Mind
Published in RUNG: 06.05.2021; Views: 2543; Downloads: 0
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Linguistic equilibrium with local and world languages : challenges of globalisation
Denis Davydov, Alexander Shapoval, Shlomo Weber, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper we introduce a model of a society with two distinct linguistic groups, each consisting of heterogeneous individuals speaking their native language. There is also a world language so that every individual is faced with four learning choices: to study the other local language only, to study the world language only, to study both, and to refrain from studying either language. We examine the Nash equilibiria of that game determined by communicative benefits (Selten & Pool), and address inefficiency of the equilibrium. We then show that government subsidies for language learning could serve as welfare‐enhancing policies. Finally, we analyze the three‐language policy, certain variants of which have been adopted in multilingual countries or regions.
Keywords: three-language formula, Nash equilibrium, inefficiency
Published in RUNG: 07.04.2021; Views: 2146; Downloads: 96
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Ki(n) : accompanying the self towards a Lived Ethics of planetary kinship and care
2020, radio or television broadcast, podcast, interview, press conference

Keywords: interspecies reciprocity, language of kinship, 1-2-1 performance, power relations, the gaze, feedback loop, lived experience
Published in RUNG: 23.02.2021; Views: 2472; Downloads: 10
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Chandos AI
Peter Purg, 2020, artistic component part

Keywords: artificial intelligence, media performance, video, language, Chandos, open AI
Published in RUNG: 04.01.2021; Views: 2586; Downloads: 0
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Giustina Selvelli, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: This work investigates the relation between the maintenance of Armenian identity and language and the multifunctional employment of the Armenian writing system in the diasporic context of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Departing from the assumption that a writing system’s cultural meaning goes far beyond its technical function, the aim is to demonstrate how the Armenian alphabet becomes a fundamental component of a process of symbolic cultivation of collective imagery, employed by the local intelligentsia in different writing settings in order to keep the link with the cultural and spiritual legacy of the historic Armenian motherland alive. In this vision, I integrate the analysis of ethnic identity with the study of the representational factors that allow a group to exist in the symbolic horizon of its members, with the purpose of underlining the symbolic aspect of ethnicity and identifying the mechanisms active in its persistence in time as a historic and cultural construction.
Keywords: Armenian Diaspora, Armenian Alphabet, Bulgarian Armenians, Plovdiv, Armenian Language
Published in RUNG: 24.08.2020; Views: 2639; Downloads: 0
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Structuring linguistic noise : The children's remarkable capacity for syntactic segmentation
Arthur Stepanov, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: How do young children acquiring their native language master complex abstract properties of adult sentences, more specifically, their syntactic structure? A good portion of recent research in child language acquisition is devoted to the nature of 'segmentation' strategies allowing children to deduce some of these abstract structural properties from the linguistic input they are exposed to, and the role of linguistic (e.g. prosodic), cognitive (e.g. working memory, probabilistic) and experience (e.g. bilingualism, music training) factors that affect the segmentation task. In this talk I give a broad outline of this research agenda including our own work and reflect on promising new directions that emerge in this domain.
Keywords: segmentation, prosody, child language
Published in RUNG: 28.06.2019; Views: 3520; Downloads: 0
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How the lack of negative input affects processing of complex syntax by advanced second language learners
Arthur Stepanov, invited lecture at foreign university

Keywords: Second language learning, ultimate attainment, syntax, sentence processing, negative evidence
Published in RUNG: 18.01.2019; Views: 3842; Downloads: 0
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The importance of not belonging: Paradigmaticity and loan nominalizations in Serbo-Croatian
Marko Simonović, Boban Arsenijević, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: In a number of Slavic and Germanic languages, various derivational affixes and morphological patterns of Latin origin are relatively common, and bear effects as abstract as deriving event nouns from verbs and property nouns from adjectives. This seems to contradict the general observation that abstract morphology typically is not subject to borrowing. We discuss the status of two Serbo-Croatian (S-C) nominalizing Latinate suffixes, -cija and -itet, complemented by one Germanic suffix, -er. On our analysis, these are not borrowed suffixes and derivational patterns, in the sense that they were present in another language and got copied into S-C, but rather suffixes and patterns which emerged within S-C, more specifically in the borrowed stratum of the S-C lexicon. Crucial factors in their emergence were the shared semantic properties of the nouns ending in the respective sequences (-cija, -itet and -er), and the quantitative properties of these sequences closely matching those of native derivational suffixes. Pragmatic, phonological and prosodic constraints apply to these derivations to the effect that the suffixes that have emerged in the borrowed domain of the lexicon never enter a competition with the native nominalization patterns.
Keywords: nominalisation, borrowing, loanword, language contact, Serbo-Croatian
Published in RUNG: 29.11.2018; Views: 3674; Downloads: 120
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Nationaal Socialistisch Taalbeleid in Nederland voor en Tijdens de Bezetting 1940 - 1945
Marko Simonović, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: Het centrale doel van dit onderzoek is de maatregelen op het gebied van de taalpolitiek, die de overheid tijdens de Duitse bezetting heeft genomen, in kaart te brengen. Aangezien de kiemen van een nieuw, bewust gepland taalgebruik al vanaf 1931 in de NSB-kringen te bespeuren zijn, wordt er ook aan de “interne” nationaal-socialistische taalpolitiek voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog aandacht besteed. Klaarblijkelijk moet men er rekening mee houden dat de ingrepen op de taal in beide fasen een verschillende status hadden. Toch hebben we hier ervoor gekozen de feiten uit de periode voor en tijdens de bezetting samen te presenteren en het nationaal-socialistische taalbeleid in Nederland als één verschijnsel te bekijken, aangezien de procédés, de doeleinden maar ook de ijveraars van het nationaal-socialistische taalbeleid na de intocht van het Duitse leger vrijwel dezelfde bleven. Er lijken twee aspecten te zijn waar men zou kunnen bepleiten dat het om twee wezenlijk verschillende perioden gaat – de doelgroep en de “doordringendheid” van de standaardisatie. Het lijkt toch moeilijk bewijsbaar dat een invloed op de taalgemeenschap als geheel na de intocht als een hoofddoeleinde van de nationaal-socialisten gold (terwijl het vóór de intocht niet het geval was). Wel zijn er aanwijzingen dat sommige aspecten van de standaardisatie tijdens de bezetting juist elitistisch waren (bv. het jargon van de Germaanse SS). Ook de “doordringendheid” van de nationaal-socialistische taalpolitiek lijkt tijdens de bezetting niet groter te zijn geworden. Aangezien de nationaal-socialistische ingrepen op dit gebied niet bepaald opvallend waren en er onder de bevolking geen bereidheid was om deze ingrepen te accepteren/implementeren, is het moeilijk aan te tonen dat de Nederlandse taalgemeenschap zich van deze taalpolitiek bewust was en, als dat wel het geval was, dat ze na mei 1940 meer bekend en invloedrijk was. Dat het om een gerechtvaardigde aanpak gaat, laat ook de enige beschikbare studie over het taalgebruik van de Nederlandse nationaal-socialisten - Toorn, 1991 – zien. Toorn maakt duidelijk dat de nieuwe omstandigheden weinig aan het taalgebruik, maar ook de perceptie van de taal, veranderden. Doorgaans staat de invloed op de Nederlandse taalgemeenschap centraal terwijl het beleid i.v.m. de Duitse taalgemeenschap in Nederland buiten beschouwing is gelaten. Wel komt Duits als tweede taal aan de orde.
Keywords: taalbeleid, tweede wereldoorlog, language planning, bezetting, Duits, Nederlands
Published in RUNG: 22.06.2018; Views: 4102; Downloads: (1 vote)
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