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The UHECR-FR0 Radio Galaxy Connection: A Multi-Messenger Study of Energy Spectra/Composition Emission and Intergalactic Magnetic Field Propagation
Jon Paul Lundquist, Lukas Merten, Serguei Vorobiov, Margot Boughelilba, Anita Reimer, Paolo Da Vela, Fabrizio Tavecchio, Giacomo Bonnoli, Chiara Righi, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This study investigates low luminosity Fanaroff-Riley Type 0 (FR0) radio galaxies as a potentially significant source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Due to their much higher prevalence in the local universe compared to more powerful radio galaxies (about five times more than FR-1s), FR0s may provide a substantial fraction of the total UHECR energy density. To determine the nucleon composition and energy spectrum of UHECRs emitted by FR0 sources, simulation results from CRPropa3 are fit to Pierre Auger Observatory data. The resulting emission spectral indices, rigidity cutoffs, and nucleon fractions are compared to recent Auger results. The FR0 simulations include the approximately isotropic distribution of FR0 galaxies and various intergalactic magnetic field configurations (including random and structured fields) and predict the fluxes of secondary photons and neutrinos produced during UHECR propagation through cosmic photon backgrounds. This comprehensive simulation allows for investigating the properties of the FR0 sources using observational multi-messenger data.
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), UHECR propagation, CRPropa, active galactic nuclei (AGN), jetted AGN, FR0 radio galaxies, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR mass composition
Published in RUNG: 24.08.2023; Views: 181; Downloads: 2
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Constraining the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays across and above the ankle with the spectrum and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Abdul Halim, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: In this work we present the interpretation of the energy spectrum and mass composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Collaboration above 6 × 10[sup]17 eV. We use an astrophysical model with two extragalactic source populations to model the hardening of the cosmic-ray flux at around 5 × 10[sup]18 eV (the so-called "ankle" feature) as a transition between these two components. We find our data to be well reproduced if sources above the ankle emit a mixed composition with a hard spectrum and a low rigidity cutoff. The component below the ankle is required to have a very soft spectrum and a mix of protons and intermediate-mass nuclei. The origin of this intermediate-mass component is not well constrained and it could originate from either Galactic or extragalactic sources. To the aim of evaluating our capability to constrain astrophysical models, we discuss the impact on the fit results of the main experimental systematic uncertainties and of the assumptions about quantities affecting the air shower development as well as the propagation and redshift distribution of injected ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs).
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, UHECR propagation, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR mass composition
Published in RUNG: 18.08.2023; Views: 175; Downloads: 3
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Dark matter search in dwarf irregular galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
Viviana Gammaldi, Judit Pérez-Romero, Javier Coronado-Blázquez, Mattia di Mauro, Ekaterina Karukes, Miguel Sánchez-Conde, Paolo Salucci, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: We analyze 11 years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data corresponding to the sky regions of seven dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies. DIrrs are dark matter (DM)-dominated systems, proposed as interesting targets for the indirect search of DM with gamma rays. The galaxies represent interesting cases with a strong disagreement between the density profiles (core versus cusp) inferred from observations and numerical simulations. In this work, we addressed the problem by considering two different DM profiles, based on both the fit to the rotation curve (in this case, a Burkert cored profile) and results from N-body cosmological simulations (i.e., Navarro-Frenk-White cuspy profile). We also include halo substructure in our analysis, which is expected to boost the DM signal by a factor of 10 in halos such as those of dIrrs. For each DM model and dIrr, we create a spatial template of the expected DM-induced gamma-ray signal to be used in the analysis of Fermi-LAT data. No significant emission is detected from any of the targets in our sample. Thus, we compute upper limits on the DM annihilation cross section versus mass parameter space. Among the seven dIrrs, we find IC10 and NGC6822 to yield the most stringent individual constraints, independently of the adopted DM profile. We also produce combined DM limits for all objects in the sample, which turn out to be dominated by IC10 for all DM models and annihilation channels, i.e., b¯b, τ+τ−, and W+W−. The strongest constraints are obtained for b¯b and are at the level of <σv>∼7×10−26 cm3 s−1 at mχ ∼ 6 GeV. Though these limits are a factor of ∼3 higher than the thermal relic cross section at low weakly interacting massive particles masses, they are independent from and complementary to those obtained by means of other targets.
Keywords: Dark matter, gamma-ray astronomy, galaxies, astronomical masses and mass distributions
Published in RUNG: 26.01.2023; Views: 515; Downloads: 0
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Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Serguei Vorobiov, 2022, published scientific conference contribution abstract (invited lecture)

Abstract: Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are mostly protons and heavier nuclei arriving on Earth from space and producing particle cascades in the atmosphere, ”extensive air showers”. As of today, the most precise and high-statistics data set of the rare (≤ 1 particle per per year above 10[sup]19 eV) UHECR events is obtained by the Pierre Auger Observatory, a large area (~3000 hybrid detector in Argentina. The Auger Observatory determines the arrival directions and energies of the primary UHECR particles and provides constraints for their masses. In this talk, I will present and discuss the recent results, including the detailed measurements of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum features, the study of the anisotropies in the UHECR arrival directions at large and intermediate angular scales, the multi-messenger searches, and the inferred cosmic-ray mass composition. Finally, the progress of the current upgrade of the Observatory, "AugerPrime" which is aimed at improving the sensitivity to the mass composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, will be presented.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR mass composition, energy spectrum, anisotropies, AugerPrime upgrade
Published in RUNG: 23.12.2022; Views: 777; Downloads: 6
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Molekularna karakterizacija lebdećih čestica slobodne troposfere sa Opservatorija Pico planine
Katja Džepina, Claudio Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Swarup China, B. Zhang, R. Chris Owen, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, Sumit Kumar, J. A. Perlinger, 2017, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Long-range transported free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the PMO (38°28’15’’N, 28°24’14’’W; 2225 m amsl) on Pico Island of the Azores in the North Atlantic. Filter-collected aerosol during summer 2012 was analysed for organic and elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average aerosol ambient concentration was 0.9 µg m-3. Organic aerosol contributed the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulphate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol was positively correlated with on-line aerosol measurements of black carbon, light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) from 9/24 and 9/25 samples collected during a pollution event were analysed with ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR MS. FLEXPART analysis showed the air masses were very aged (>12 days). ~4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra between m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. WSOC have an average O/C of ~0.45, relatively low compared to O/C of other aged aerosol, which might be the result of evaporation and fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART and MODIS fire counts. This was confirmed with WSOC biomass burning markers and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by SEM. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of biomass burning phenolic species suggests that the aerosol collected at Pico had undergone cloud processing. The air masses on 9/25 were more aged (~15 days) and influenced by marine emissions, as indicated by organosulphates and species characteristic for marine aerosol (e.g. fatty acids). The change in air masses for the two samples was corroborated by the changes in ozone, ethane, propane, morphology of particles, as well as by FLEXPART. In this presentation we will presents the first detailed molecular characterization of free tropospheric aged aerosol intercepted at the PMO.
Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol, Free troposphere, Mass spectrometry, Pico mountain observatory
Published in RUNG: 26.05.2021; Views: 1883; Downloads: 0
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Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with aerosol mass spectrometry : results from the CENICA Supersite
Dara Salcedo, T. B. Onasch, Katja Džepina, M. R. Canagaratna, Qi Zhang, J. A. Huffman, P. F. DeCarlo, J. Jayne, P. Mortimer, D. Worsnop, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite, during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study (MCMA-2003) from 31 March-4 May 2003 to investigate particle concentrations, sources, and processes. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 mu m (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. In order to account for the refractory material in the aerosol, we also present estimates of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer and an estimate of the aerosol soil component obtained from Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates. Comparisons of AMS + BC + soil mass concentration with other collocated particle instruments (a LASAIR Optical Particle Counter, a PM2.5 Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), and a PM2.5 DustTrak Aerosol Monitor) show that the AMS + BC + soil mass concentration is consistent with the total PM2.5 mass concentration during MCMA-2003 within the combined uncertainties. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents, on average, 54.6% (standard deviation sigma=10%) of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds ( mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5 (sigma=10%); BC mass concentration is about 11% (sigma=4%); while soil represents about 6.9% (sigma=4%). Size distributions are presented for the AMS species; they show an accumulation mode that contains mainly oxygenated organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The organic size distributions also contain a small organic particle mode that is likely indicative of fresh traffic emissions; small particle modes exist for the inorganic species as well. Evidence suggests that the organic and inorganic species are not always internally mixed, especially in the small modes. The aerosol seems to be neutralized most of the time; however, there were some periods when there was not enough ammonium to completely neutralize the nitrate, chloride and sulfate present. The diurnal cycle and size distributions of nitrate suggest local photochemical production. On the other hand, sulfate appears to be produced on a regional scale. There are indications of new particle formation and growth events when concentrations of SO2 were high. Although the sources of chloride are not clear, this species seems to condense as ammonium chloride early in the morning and to evaporate as the temperature increases and RH decreases. The total and speciated mass concentrations and diurnal cycles measured during MCMA-2003 are similar to measurements during a previous field campaign at a nearby location.
Keywords: aerosol mass-spectrometer, atmospheric aerosol, atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics
Published in RUNG: 12.04.2021; Views: 1607; Downloads: 0
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Sources and transformations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City
L. C. Marr, Katja Džepina, Jose L. Jimenez, F. Reisen, H. L. Bethel, Janet Arey, J. S. Gaffney, N. A. Marley, Luisa T. Molina, Mario J. Molina, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: Understanding sources, concentrations, and transformations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere is important because of their potent mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The measurement of particle-bound PAHs by three different methods during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 presents a unique opportunity for characterization of these compounds and intercomparison of the methods. The three methods are ( 1) collection and analysis of bulk samples for time-integrated gas- and particle-phase speciation by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry; ( 2) aerosol photoionization for fast detection of PAHs on particles' surfaces; and ( 3) aerosol mass spectrometry for fast analysis of size and chemical composition. This research represents the first time aerosol mass spectrometry has been used to measure ambient PAH concentrations and the first time that fast, real-time methods have been used to quantify PAHs alongside traditional filter-based measurements in an extended field campaign. Speciated PAH measurements suggest that motor vehicles and garbage and wood burning are important sources in Mexico City. The diurnal concentration patterns captured by aerosol photoionization and aerosol mass spectrometry are generally consistent. Ambient concentrations of particle-phase PAHs typically peak at similar to 110 ng m(-3) during the morning rush hour and rapidly decay due to changes in source activity patterns and dilution as the boundary layer rises, although surface-bound PAH concentrations decay faster. The more rapid decrease in surface versus bulk PAH concentrations during the late morning suggests that freshly emitted combustion-related particles are quickly coated by secondary aerosol material in Mexico City's atmosphere and may also be transformed by heterogeneous reactions.
Keywords: aerosol mass-spectrometer, aerodynamic diameter measurements, oxygenated organic aerosols, relative rate constants
Published in RUNG: 12.04.2021; Views: 1688; Downloads: 0
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Ubiquity and dominance of oxygenated species in organic aerosols in anthropogenically-influenced Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes
Q. Zhang, Jose L. Jimenez, M. R. Canagaratna, J. David Allan, H. Coe, I. M. Ulbrich, M. R. Alfarra, A. Takami, A. M. Middlebrook, Katja Džepina, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Organic aerosol (OA) data acquired by the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) in 37 field campaigns were deconvolved into hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and several types of oxygenated OA (OOA) components. HOA has been linked to primary combustion emissions (mainly from fossil fuel) and other primary sources such as meat cooking. OOA is ubiquitous in various atmospheric environments, on average accounting for 64%, 83% and 95% of the total OA in urban, urban downwind, and rural/remote sites, respectively. A case study analysis of a rural site shows that the OOA concentration is much greater than the advected HOA, indicating that HOA oxidation is not an important source of OOA, and that OOA increases are mainly due to SOA. Most global models lack an explicit representation of SOA which may lead to significant biases in the magnitude, spatial and temporal distributions of OA, and in aerosol hygroscopic properties.
Keywords: atmospheric aerosol, secondary organic aerosols, primary organic aerosols, aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 1596; Downloads: 0
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Evaluation of recently-proposed secondary organic aerosol models for a case study in Mexico City
Katja Džepina, R. M. Volkamer, Sasha Madronich, P. Tulet, I. M. Ulbrich, Q. Zhang, C. D. Cappa, P. J. Ziemann, Jose L. Jimenez, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Recent field studies have found large discrepancies in the measured vs. modeled SOA mass loadings in both urban and regional polluted atmospheres. The reasons for these large differences are unclear. Here we revisit a case study of SOA formation in Mexico City described by Volkamer et al. (2006), during a photochemically active period when the impact of regional biomass burning is minor or negligible, and show that the observed increase in OA/Delta CO is consistent with results from several groups during MILAGRO 2006. Then we use the case study to evaluate three new SOA models: 1) the update of aromatic SOA yields from recent chamber experiments (Ng et al., 2007); 2) the formation of SOA from glyoxal (Volkamer et al., 2007a); and 3) the formation of SOA from primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility species (P-S/IVOC) (Robinson et al., 2007). We also evaluate the effect of reduced partitioning of SOA into POA (Song et al., 2007). Traditional SOA precursors (mainly aromatics) by themselves still fail to produce enough SOA to match the observations by a factor of similar to similar to 7. The new low-NOx aromatic pathways with very high SOA yields make a very small contribution in this high-NOx urban environment as the RO2 center dot+NO reaction dominates the fate of the RO2 center dot radicals. Glyoxal contributes several mu g m(-3) to SOA formation, with similar timing as the measurements. P-S/IVOC are estimated from equilibrium with emitted POA, and introduce a large amount of gas-phase oxidizable carbon that was not in models before. With the formulation in Robinson et al. (2007) these species have a high SOA yield, and this mechanism can close the gap in SOA mass between measurements and models in our case study. However the volatility of SOA produced in the model is too high and the O/C ratio is somewhat lower than observations. Glyoxal SOA helps to bring the O/C ratio of predicted and observed SOA into better agreement. The sensitivities of the model to some key uncertain parameters are evaluated.
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons, positive matrix factorization, mass-spectrometry, volatility measurements
Published in RUNG: 11.04.2021; Views: 1593; Downloads: 0
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