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1.
Possible interpretations of the joint observations of UHECR arrival directions using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory
Mikhail Kuznetsov, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Various hints for anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been reported. Still, our poor knowledge about extragalactic and Galactic magnetic fields and about the UHECR mass composition makes it non-trivial to interpret such results in terms of possible models of UHECR sources. In this work, we apply the same analyses that have been performed on the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array UHECR data to a variety of Monte Carlo simulations generated according to many different combinations of hypotheses about the sources, composition and magnetic deflections of UHECRs. We find that only some of these models can yield results similar to those obtained with the real data.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, anisotropy, galactic magnetic fields, telescope array, arrival directions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 218; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,30 MB)
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2.
Update on the searches for anisotropies in UHECR arrival directions with the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Lorenzo Caccianiga, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), particles from outer space with energies �≥1 EeV, is still unknown, though the near-isotropy of their arrival direction distribution excludes a dominant Galactic contribution, and interactions with background photons prevent them from travelling cosmologically large distances. This suggests that their sources must be searched for in nearby galaxy groups and clusters. Deflections by intergalactic and Galactic magnetic fields are expected to hinder such searches but not preclude them altogether. So far, the only anisotropy detected with statistical significance ≥ 5� is a modulation in right ascension in the data from the Pierre Auger Observatory at �≥8 EeV interpretable as a 7% dipole moment. Various hints for higher-energy, smaller-scale anisotropies have been reported. UHECR arrival direction data from both the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array experiment have been searched for anisotropies by a working group with members from both collaborations; combining the two datasets requires a cross-calibration procedure due to the different systematic uncertainties on energy measurements but allows us to perform analyses that are less model-dependent than what can be done with partial sky coverage. We report a significant dipole pointing away from the Galactic Center and a ∼4.6� anisotropy found when comparing the directions of UHECRs with a catalog of starburst galaxies.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, anisotropy, galactic magnetic fields, telescope array, arrival directions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 201; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,36 MB)
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3.
Measurement of UHECR energy spectrum with the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
Douglas R. Bergman, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is of crucial importance to clarify their origin, acceleration mechanisms, and propagation processes in inter-Galactic and Galactic space. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina and the Telescope Array (TA) in the US have reported their measurements of UHECR energy spectra observed in the southern and northern hemisphere, respectively. The Auger–TA energy spectrum working group was established in 2012 and has been working to understand the uncertainties in energy scale in both experiments, their systematic differences, and differences in the shape of the spectra. In previous works, we reported that there was an overall agreement of the energy spectra measured by the two observatories below 10 EeV while at higher energies, a remaining significant difference was observed in the common declination band. This time we revisit the energy scales of both experiments, including the fluorescence yield and the invisible energy corrections. Another new approach to investigate a possible source of energy systematic difference is to reconstruct simulated showers of common energy and zenith angle using the detector simulation and reconstruction programs of both experiments that are independently tuned and optimized for data from their own detectors. The results will be presented at the conference.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Telescope Array, energy spectrum
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 224; Prenosov: 5
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4.
Auger@TA : an Auger-like surface detector micro-array embedded within the Telescope Array Project
S. Mayotte, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) and the Telescope Array Project (TA) are the two largest ultra-highenergy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatories in the world. One obstacle in pursuing full-sky UHECR physics is the apparent discrepancy in flux measured by the two experiments. This could be due to astrophysical differences as Auger and TA observe the Southern and Northern skies, respectively. However, the scintillation detectors used by TA have very different sensitivity to the various components of extensive air showers than the water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) used by Auger. The discrepancy could also be due to systematic effects arising from the differing detector designs and reconstruction methods. The primary goal of the Auger@TA working group is to cross-calibrate the approaches of the two observatories using in-situ methods. This is achieved by placing a self-triggering micro-array, which consists of eight Auger surface detector stations, with both WCDs and AugerPrime scintillators, within the TA array. Seven of the WCDs use a 1-PMT prototype configuration and form a hexagon with the Auger spacing of 1.5 km. The eighth station uses a standard 3-PMT Auger WCD, placed with a TA station at the center of the hexagon to form a triplet for high-statistics, low-uncertainty, cross-calibration of instrumentation. Deployment of the micro-array took place between September 2022 and August 2023, with data-taking foreseen by the Fall of 2023. Details on the instrumentation and deployment of the micro-array, as well as its expected performance, trigger efficiencies, and event rate will be presented. First data from individual stations will also be shown.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Telescope Array, AugerPrime, scintillators, water-Cherenkov detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 199; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,50 MB)
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5.
Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles : testing the compatibility of the measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array
A. Abdul Halim, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory (Auger) and the Telescope Array (TA), located, respectively, in the Southern and Northern hemispheres, are the largest ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) observatories. The Auger and TA Collaborations have collected unprecedented statistics providing us with a unique opportunity to search for the differences between the UHECR energy spectra and mass compositions in the complementary sky regions. To correctly attribute such differences to the properties of the UHECR sources or propagation, the systematic effects in the measurements of each observatory should be considered properly. In this context, the task of the Auger – TA mass composition working group is to identify possible differences of astrophysical origin in the measurements of the depth of the maximum of air-shower profiles, X_max, performed at both observatories using the fluorescence technique. Due to distinct approaches to event selection and analysis atAuger and TA, theworking group uses a specially designed method to transfer the Auger X_max distributions into the TA detector. To this end, dedicated air-shower and detector simulations for the TA Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detector stations were performed with the Sibyll 2.3d hadronic interaction model. From the comparison of the first two moments and the shapes of X_max distributions for energies above 10^18.2 eV, no significant differences between the Auger and TA measurements were found.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, fluorescence detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 216; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,19 MB)
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6.
The Cherenkov Telescope Array
Daniel Mazin, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies. It will be capable of detecting gamma rays in the energy range from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV with unprecedented precision in energy and directional reconstruction. With more than 100 telescopes of three different types it will be located in the northern hemisphere at La Palma, Spain, and in the southern at Paranal, Chile. CTA will be one of the largest astronomical infrastructures in the world with open data access and it will address questions in astronomy, astrophysics and fundamental physics in the next decades. In this presentation we will focus on the status of the CTA construction, the status of the telescope prototypes and highlight some of the physics perspectives.
Ključne besede: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA sensitivity, gamma-ray bursts, POpulation Synthesis Theory Integrated project for very high-energy emission
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.12.2023; Ogledov: 351; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (27,92 MB)
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7.
POSyTIVE : a GRB population study for the Cherenkov Telescope Array
Maria Grazia Bernardini, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: One of the central scientific goals of the next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the detection and characterization of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). CTA will be sensitive to gamma rays with energies from about 20 GeV, up to a few hundred TeV. The energy range below 1 TeV is particularly important for GRBs. CTA will allow exploration of this regime with a ground-based gamma-ray facility with unprecedented sensitivity. As such, it will be able to probe radiation and particle acceleration mechanisms at work in GRBs. In this contribution, we describe POSyTIVE, the POpulation Synthesis Theory Integrated project for very high-energy emission. The purpose of the project is to make realistic predictions for the detection rates of GRBs with CTA, to enable studies of individual simulated GRBs, and to perform preparatory studies for time-resolved spectral analyses. The mock GRB population used by POSyTIVE is calibrated using the entire 40-year dataset of multi-wavelength GRB observations. As part of this project we explore theoretical models for prompt and afterglow emission of long and short GRBs, and predict the expected radiative output. Subsequent analyses are performed in order to simulate the observations with CTA, using the publicly available ctools and Gammapy frameworks. We present preliminary results of the design and implementation of this project.
Ključne besede: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA sensitivity, gamma-ray bursts, population Synthesis Theory, very high-energy emission
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.12.2023; Ogledov: 438; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,50 MB)
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8.
Cherenkov Telescope Array Science : a multi-wavelength and multi-messenger perspective
Ulisses Barres de Almeida, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the major global observatory for VHE gamma-ray astronomy over the next decade and beyond. It will be an explorer of the extreme universe, with a broad scientific potential: from understanding the role of relativistic cosmic particles, to the search for dark matter. Covering photon energies from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, and with an angular resolution unique in the field, of about 1 arc min, CTA will improve on all aspects of the performance with respect to current instruments, surveying the high energy sky hundreds of times faster than previous TeV telescopes, and with a much deeper view. The very large collection area of CTA makes it an important probe of transient phenomena. The first CTA telescope has just been inaugurated in the Canary Islands, Spain, and as more telescopes are added in the coming years, scientific operation will start. It is evident that CTA will have important synergies with many of the new generation astronomical and astroparticle observatories. In this talk we will review the CTA science case from the point of view of its synergies with other instruments and facilities, highlighting the CTA needs in terms of external data, as well as the opportunities and strategies for cooperation to achieve the basic CTA science goals.
Ključne besede: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA performances, transient VHE sources, CTA science
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.12.2023; Ogledov: 417; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,16 MB)
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9.
Characterization of atmospheric properties over the Cherenkov Telescope Array at La Palma
Miha Živec, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) systems are used in high-energy astrophysics to detect and study gamma-ray sources in the universe. These telescopes measure properties of cosmic gamma rays using Cherenkov radiation emitted by secondary particles produced after interacting with the Earth’s atmosphere. Atmospheric monitoring is crucial for the proper operation of IACT systems. A number of remote sensing and in situ methods are used to understand and correct the effects of the atmosphere on the propagation of Cherenkov radiation from its origin to the telescope. Failure to do so greatly decreases IACT performance, particularly, their energy resolution and threshold. Lidar systems can be used to measure atmospheric optical depth profiles, which are essential for IACT calibration. The main aim of this thesis is to demonstrate that a prototype lidar for the north-ern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory (CTAO), which is a next-generation IACT now under construction, has hardware and software capabilities that would lead to the construction of CTAO Raman lidar. Due to specific require-ments of the CTAO, a Raman lidar, which can provide better atmospheric parameter accuracy, will be used for the first time in an IACT system. In 2021-2022 the BRL was deployed to the future CTAO-North site at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory, La Palma, for testing in its actual operating conditions. During a year and a half long test period, it underwent a number of tests, including manual and remote operation under various environmental conditions. These included hot summers, cold winters, rain, snow, ice, and strong winds, but also some more exotic events, such as desert sand intrusions (Calima) and volcanic eruptions. The latter two are presented in this work as test cases for atmospheric characterization. Since the main goal of a CTAO lidar is the optical depth measurements, the BRL does not have the full set of features for aerosol characterization. While it can yield the ˚Angstr¨om exponent and lidar ratio, it does not provide depolarization informa-tion, which is one of the key components for aerosol typing. As the atmosphere at La Palma was found to be more complex than initially anticipated, we present the benefits of including depolarization capability by using a conceptually similar Raman lidar system specifically designed for aerosol characterization. We present the results of a campaign focused on the determination of bioaerosol capabilities to act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice-nucleating particles in mixed-phase clouds, where depo-larization information was used to determine the thermodynamic phase of the cloud.
Ključne besede: Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, Raman Lidar, atmospheric optical depth, aerosol characterization, Cumbre Vieja, Calima
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.10.2023; Ogledov: 537; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Celotno besedilo (26,88 MB)

10.
The Cherenkov Telescope Array. Science Goals and Current Status
Rene A. Ong, Christopher Eckner, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Gabrijela Zaharijas, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Opis: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the major ground-based gamma-ray observatory planned for the next decade and beyond. Consisting of two large atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays (one in the southern hemisphere and one in the northern hemisphere), CTA will have superior angular resolution, a much wider energy range, and approximately an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity, as compared to existing instruments. The CTA science programme will be rich and diverse, covering cosmic particle acceleration, the astrophysics of extreme environments, and physics frontiers beyond the Standard Model. This paper outlines the science goals for CTA and covers the current status of the project.
Ključne besede: very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), cosmic particle acceleration, astrophysics of extreme environments, physics beyond the Standard Model
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.10.2023; Ogledov: 464; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,28 MB)
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