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1.
Constraints on upward-going air showers using the Pierre Auger Observatory data
Emanuele De Vito, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to upward-going air showers with energies above 1017 eV. Given its operation time and wide field of view, the FD has the potential to support or constrain the “anomalous” observations by the ANITA detector, interpreted as upward-going air showers that would be indicative of Beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics. To this end, a search for upward-going air showers with the FD has been performed applying selection criteria that were optimized using 10% of FD data. Dedicated background simulations (downward-going events) have been performed to estimate our capability to distinguish candidates from false positives. Also dedicated signal simulations (upward-going events) have been used to estimate our sensitivity to such showers with a focus on the energy region close to the ANITA observations. Improved and updated results of the Pierre Auger Observatory exposure to upward-going showers will be presented after the unblinding of 14 years of FD data. Extensive simulations allow the FD exposure to be obtained at lower energies which are particularly relevant for the comparison with the ANITA results. A refinement of the method for signal discrimination and background rejection has also been applied. The implications are discussed under the assumption that the ANITA events were due to upward-going events.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, air showers, beyond standard model, fluorescence detectors, ANITA
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 480; Prenosov: 6
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2.
The performances of the upgraded surface detector stations of AugerPrime
Fabio Convenga, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is an array of 1,600 stations using a water Cherenkov detector (WCD) for particle detection. The array is undergoing a major upgrade known as AugerPrime that involves adding scintillator surface detectors (SSDs) and radio antennas to the existing WCDs. Each WCD is also equipped with a smaller photomultiplier tube added to the original ones. As part of the upgrade, underground muon detectors are being installed in an area with a higher density of surface detector stations. AugerPrime required the development of new electronics to process the signals from all the new detectors and handle a higher sampling rate, a more precise GPS receiver, an extended dynamic range, higher processing capacity, and improved monitoring systems and memory. The deployment of the SSDs on top of each surface detector station is currently completed together with the deployment of the new electronics. This contribution will present the first data from the upgraded stations, emphasizing the performances of the SSDs and the new electronics.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, extensive air showers, scintillation surface detectors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 475; Prenosov: 5
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3.
Deep-learning-based cosmic-ray mass reconstruction using the water-Cherenkov and scintillation detectors of AugerPrime
Niklas Langner, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the highest energies, cosmic rays can be detected only indirectly by the extensive air showers they create upon interaction with the Earth’s atmosphere. While high-statistics measurements of the energy and arrival directions of cosmic rays can be performed with large surface detector arrays like the Pierre Auger Observatory, the determination of the cosmic-ray mass on an event-by-event basis is challenging. Meaningful physical observables in this regard include the depth of maximum of air-shower profiles, which is related to the mean free path of the cosmic ray in the atmosphere and the shower development, as well as the number of muons that rises with the number of nucleons in a cosmic-ray particle. In this contribution, we present an approach to determine both of these observables from combined measurements of water-Cherenkov detectors and scintillation detectors, which are part of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Observatory. To characterize the time-dependent signals of the two detectors both separately as well as in correlation to each other, we apply deep learning techniques. Transformer networks employing the attention mechanism are especially well-suited for this task. We present the utilized network concepts and apply them to simulations to determine the precision of the event-by-event mass reconstruction that can be achieved by the combined measurements of the depth of shower maximum and the number of muons.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, muons, extensive air showers, surface detectors, AugerPrime, deep learning techiniques
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 438; Prenosov: 7
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4.
The number of muons measured in hybrid events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory
Maximilian Stadelmaier, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The number of muons produced in extensive air showers is a reliable proxy for the amount of hadron production that occurs during the shower development. It is, therefore, an important observable in the context of identifying the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Beyond LHC energies, however, hadronic multiparticle production as it occurs in air showers from ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, is poorly understood, and currently there is little to no way to directly test it experimentally. In simulations, current models of hadronic interactions are unable to produce the average number of muons that is measured by multiple air-shower experiments. In this work, we estimate the number of muons in vertical hybrid events detected by both the fluorescence and surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory above a primary energy of 3 EeV. To reconstruct the signal, we use a model of the water-Cherenkov detector responses that is based on air-shower universality. We take into account the effect of the longitudinal shower development on the lateral distribution of the signal at the ground, as well as the primary energy estimated from the calorimetric energy deposition of the air shower. In this way, we are able to estimate the amount of muons created in vertical showers, relative to expectations from simulated showers using modern hadronic interaction models.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, muons, extensive air showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.01.2024; Ogledov: 480; Prenosov: 5
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5.
Studies of the UHECR Mass Composition and Hadronic Interactions with the FD and SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J.M. Carceller, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: With data on the depth of maximum Xmax collected during more than a decade of operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we report on the inferences on the mass composition of UHECRs in the energy range E = 10[sup]17.2 − 10[sup]19.6 eV and on the measurements of the proton-air cross section for energies up to 10[sup]18.5 eV. We also present the results on Xmax obtained using the information on the particle arrival times recorded by the SD stations allowing us to extend the Xmax measurements up to 10[sup]20 eV. The inferences on mass composition, in particular using the data of the SD, are subject to systematic uncertainties due to uncertainties in the description of hadronic interactions at ultra-high energies. We discuss this problem with respect to the properties of the muonic component of extensive air-showers as derived from the SD data.
Ključne besede: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), extensive air showers (EAS), EAS muonic component, EAS electromagnetic component, Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR mass composition, UHECR hadronic interactions
Objavljeno v RUNG: 11.10.2023; Ogledov: 789; Prenosov: 8
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6.
TA SD analysis for inclined air showers
K. Takahashi, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The origin of UHECRs is an open question which is complicated due to not very well-known deflections of the charged particles in Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields. Finding the EeV neutrinos from astronomical sources will be a key to solve the problem of the origin. EeV neutrinos are expected to produce extensive air showers which are observable by the current operational air shower arrays. To search for neutrino-induced showers, it is important to increase both the interaction probability and background rejection power in the analysis of the inclined showers. We study a reconstruction method of the Telescope Array surface detector (TA SD) data for the neutrino-induced inclined air showers. The prime target is to improve the angular resolution for the astronomical objects. In this contribution, we present the detail of analysis method, angular resolution and total exposure of TA SD for neutrinos from the astronomical objects as a function of the declination.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, inclined showers, neutrinos
Objavljeno v RUNG: 09.10.2023; Ogledov: 728; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)
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7.
Energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory
V. Novotný, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present the energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory from 6×10^15 eV up to the most extreme energies where the accumulated exposure reaches about 80 000 km^2sr yr. The wide energy range is covered with five different measurements, namely using the events detected by the surface detector with zenith angles below 60 degrees and applying different reconstruction method also above 60 degrees, those collected by a denser array, the hybrid events simultaneously recorded by the surface and fluorescence detectors, and using those events in which the signal is dominated by Cherenkov light registered by the high-elevation telescopes. In this contribution, we report updates of the analysis techniques and present the spectrum obtained by combining the five different measurements. Spectral features occurring in the wide energy range covered by the Observatory are discussed.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface detection, hybrid detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, cerenkov light, energy spectrum, inclined showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 657; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,45 MB)
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8.
Large-scale and multipolar anisotropies of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies above 4 EeV
R. de Almeida, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: More than half a century after the discovery of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), their origin is still an open question. The study of anisotropies in the arrival directions of such particles is an essential ingredient to solve this puzzle. We update our previous analysis of large-scale anisotropies observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory using the latest data collected before the AugerPrime upgrade. We select events with zenith angles up to 80 degrees, implying a sky coverage of 85%, and energies above 4 EeV, for which the surface detector of the Observatory is fully efficient. Dipolar and quadrupolar amplitudes are evaluated through a combined Fourier analysis of the event count rate in right ascension and azimuth. The analysis is performed in three energy bins with boundaries at 4, 8, 16 and 32 EeV and two additional cumulative bins with energies above 8 and 32 EeV. The most significant signal is a dipolar modulation in right ascension for energies above 8 EeV, as previously reported, with statistical significance of 6.6σ. Additionally, we report the measurements of the angular power spectrum for the same energy bins with the same dataset.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, dipole, quadropole, angular power spectrum, inclined showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 770; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,14 MB)
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9.
Constraining Lorentz Invariance Violation using the muon content of extensive air showers measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
C. Trimarelli, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Lorentz symmetry requires the space-time structure to be the same for all observers, but, on the other hand, various quantum gravity theories suggest that it may be violated when approaching the Planck scale. Even a small violation of Lorentz Invariance (LI) could easily affect the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) propagation on a cosmological scale. Moreover, at the extreme energies, like those available in the collision of UHECRs with atmosphere, one should also expect a change in the interactions and, therefore, in the development of extensive air showers. For the first time, this effect has been studied using the muon content of air showers measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory. After having introduced Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) as a perturbation term in the single particle dispersion relation, a library of simulated showers with different energies, primary particles and LIV strengths has been produced. Leading to a change in the energy threshold of particle decays, the modification of the energy-momentum relation allows hadronic interactions of neutral pions that contribute to the growth of the hadronic cascade. As a consequence, an increase in the number of muons and a decrease in their intrinsic fluctuations are expected. Comparing the Monte Carlo expectations with the muon fluctuation measurements from the Pierre Auger Observatory, limits on LIV parameters have been derived and presented in this contribution.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, muons, air showers, Lorentz violation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.10.2023; Ogledov: 790; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,86 MB)
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10.
Constraints on BSM particles from the absence of upward-going air showers in the Pierre Auger Observatory
Baobiao Yue, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory has a large exposure to search for upward-going showers. Constraints have been recently obtained by using 14 years of FD data searching for upward-going showers in the zenith angle range [110◦, 180◦]. In this work, we translate these bounds to upper limits of a possible flux of ultra high energy tau-leptons escaping from the Earth into the atmosphere. Such a mechanism could explain the observation of "anomalous pulses" made by ANITA, that indicated the existence of upward-going air showers with energies above 10[sup]17 eV. As tau neutrinos would be absorbed within the Earth at the deduced angles and energies, a flux of upward-going taus could only be resulted from an unknown type of ultra high energy Beyond Standard Model particle penetrating the Earth with little attenuation, and then creating tau-leptons through interactions within a maximum depth of about 50 km before exiting. We test classes of such models in a generic way and determine upper flux limits of ultra high energy BSM particles as a function of their unknown cross section with matter.
Ključne besede: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, fluorescence detector, upward-going air showers, Beyond Standard Model particles
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 685; Prenosov: 6
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