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41.
UHECR arrival directions in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors and nearby galaxies
A. di Matteo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The distribution of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray arrival directions appears to be nearly isotropic except for a dipole moment of order 6×(E/10 EeV) per cent. Nonetheless, at the highest energies, as the number of possible candidate sources within the propagation horizon and the magnetic deflections both shrink, smaller-scale anisotropies might be expected to emerge. On the other hand, the flux suppression reduces the statistics available for searching for such anisotropies. In this work, we consider two different lists of candidate sources: a sample of nearby starburst galaxies and the 2MRS catalog tracing stellar mass within 250 Mpc. We combine surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and the Telescope Array until 2019, and use them to test models in which UHECRs comprise an isotropic background and a foreground originating from the candidate sources and randomly deflected by magnetic fields. The free parameters of these models are the energy threshold, the signal fraction, and the search angular scale. We find a correlation between the arrival directions of 11.8%+5.0%−3.1% of cosmic rays detected with E≥38 EeV by Auger or with E≳49 EeV by TA and the position of nearby starburst galaxies on a 15.5∘+5.3∘−3.2∘ angular scale, with a 4.2σ post-trial significance, as well as a weaker correlation with the overall galaxy distribution.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, full-sky, starburst galaxies, source correlations, dipole
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 944; Prenosov: 4
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42.
Adjustments to Model Predictions of Depth of Shower Maximum and Signals at Ground Level using Hybrid Events of the Pierre Auger Observatory
J. Vicha, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present a new method to explore simple ad-hoc adjustments to the predictions of hadronic interaction models to improve their consistency with observed two-dimensional distributions of the depth of shower maximum, Xmax, and signal at ground level, as a function of zenith angle. The method relies on the assumption that the mass composition is the same at all zenith angles, while the atmospheric shower development and attenuation depend on composition in a correlated way. In the present work, for each of the three leading LHC-tuned hadronic interaction models, we allow a global shift ΔXmax of the predicted shower maximum, which is the same for every mass and energy, and a rescaling R_Had of the hadronic component at ground level which depends on the zenith angle. We apply the analysis to 2297 events reconstructed by both fluorescence and surface detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies 10^18.5−10^19.0 eV. Given the modeling assumptions made in this analysis, the best fit reaches its optimum value when shifting the Xmax predictions of hadronic interaction models to deeper values and increasing the hadronic signal at both extreme zenith angles. The resulting change in the composition towards heavier primaries alleviates the previously identified model deficit in the hadronic signal (commonly called the muon deficit), but does not remove it. Because of the size of the required corrections ΔXmax and R_Had and the large number of events in the sample, the statistical significance of the corrections is large, greater than 5σstat even for the combination of experimental systematic shifts within 1σsys that are the most favorable for the models.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ground array, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, Xmax, muon deficit, air-shower models
Objavljeno v RUNG: 04.10.2023; Ogledov: 955; Prenosov: 6
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43.
Combined fit of the energy spectrum and mass composition across the ankle with the data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory
E. Guido, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The combined fit of the energy spectrum and mass composition data above 5 EeV suggested the presence of extragalactic sources ejecting ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with relatively low maximum energies, hard spectral indices and mixed chemical compositions, dominated by the contribution of intermediate mass groups. Here we present an extension of the fit to lower energies, to include the feature observed near 5 EeV in the all-particle energy spectrum, the so-called ankle. We show that it is possible to generate such a change of slope assuming that the flux below the ankle is provided by the superposition of different contributions. The simplest extension of this sort consists of introducing a supplemental extragalactic component at low energy, characterised by different physical parameters with respect to the one being dominant above the ankle: such a component may originate from a different population of sources or be provided by interactions occurring in the acceleration sites. In this framework we also explore the possibility of including the end of a Galactic contribution at low energies. The fit suggests that these scenarios provide a reasonable description of the measurements across the ankle, without significantly affecting the interpretation obtained for the above-ankle region. In order to evaluate our capability to constrain the source models, we finally discuss the impact of the main experimental systematic uncertainties and of the theoretical models choice on the fit results.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, hybrid detection, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, energy spectrum, combined fit
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 895; Prenosov: 4
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44.
Indication of a mass-dependent anisotropy above 10^18.7 eV in the hybrid data of the Pierre Auger Observatory
E.W. Mayotte, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We test the hypothesis of an anisotropy laying along the galactic plane which depends on the mass of primary cosmic-rays. The sensitivity to primary mass is provided by the depth of shower maximum, Xmax, from hybrid events measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The 14 years of available data are split into on- and off-plane regions using the galactic latitude of each event to form two distributions in Xmax, which are compared using the Anderson-Darling 2-samples test. A scan over a subset of the data is used to select an optimal threshold energy of 10^18.7 eV and a galactic latitude splitting at |b|=30∘, which are then set as a prescription for the remaining data. With these thresholds, the distribution of Xmax from the on-plane region is found to have a 9.1±1.6+2.1−2.2 g/cm2 shallower mean and a 5.9±2.1+3.5−2.5 g/cm2 narrower width than that of the off-plane region. These differences are as such to indicate that the mean mass of primary particles arriving from the on-plane region is greater than that of those coming from the off-plane region. Monte-Carlo studies yield a 4.4σ post-penalization statistical significance for the independent data. Including the scanned data results in a 4.9+1.4−1.5σ post-penalization statistical significance, where the uncertainties are of systematic origin. Accounting for systematic uncertainties leads to an indication for anisotropy in mass composition above 10^18.7 eV at a confidence level of 3.3σ. The anisotropy is observed independently at each of the four fluorescence telescope sites. Interpretations of possible causes of the observed effect are discussed.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, anisotropy, Xmax, galactic plane
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 943; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,33 MB)
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45.
Energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory
V. Novotný, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We present the energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory from 6×10^15 eV up to the most extreme energies where the accumulated exposure reaches about 80 000 km^2sr yr. The wide energy range is covered with five different measurements, namely using the events detected by the surface detector with zenith angles below 60 degrees and applying different reconstruction method also above 60 degrees, those collected by a denser array, the hybrid events simultaneously recorded by the surface and fluorescence detectors, and using those events in which the signal is dominated by Cherenkov light registered by the high-elevation telescopes. In this contribution, we report updates of the analysis techniques and present the spectrum obtained by combining the five different measurements. Spectral features occurring in the wide energy range covered by the Observatory are discussed.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface detection, hybrid detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, cerenkov light, energy spectrum, inclined showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 821; Prenosov: 5
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46.
Study on multi-ELVES in the Pierre Auger Observatory
A. Vásquez Ramírez, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Since 2013, the four sites of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory record ELVES with a dedicated trigger. These UV light emissions are correlated to distant lightning strikes. The length of recorded traces has been increased from 100 μs (2013), to 300 μs (2014-16), to 900 μs (2017-present), to progressively extend the observation of the light emission towards the vertical of the causative lightning and beyond. A large fraction of the observed events shows double ELVES within the time window, and, in some cases, even more complex structures are observed. The nature of the multi-ELVES is not completely understood but may be related to the different types of lightning in which they are originated. For example, it is known that Narrow Bipolar Events can produce double ELVES, and Energetic In-cloud Pulses, occurring between the main negative and upper positive charge layer of clouds, can induce double and even quadruple ELVES in the ionosphere. This report shows the seasonal and daily dependence of the time gap, amplitude ratio, and correlation between the pulse widths of the peaks in a sample of 1000+ multi-ELVES events recorded during the period 2014-20. The events have been compared with data from other satellite and ground-based sensing devices to study the correlation of their properties with lightning observables such as altitude and polarity.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, UV light, multi-ELVES, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 1076; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,25 MB)
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47.
Hotspot Update, and a new Excess of Events on the Sky Seen by the Telescope Array Experiment
J. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, the largest observatory studying ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere, has reported an excess in the arrival direction distribution for events with energies above 5.7×10^19 eV , called the hotspot. We report here the latest results of the TA hotspot using the most recent data measured by the TA surface detector array, which is more than doubled exposure since the first publication; the hotspot still exists with 3 sigma post-trial significance. By using an oversampling search with a 20∘-circle, similar to the study of the hotspot, we find an additional excess of events at slightly lower energies. The Perseus-Pisces supercluster lies at the location of the new excess. Assuming this structure is responsible for the excess, we conducted a statistical analysis to verify the correlation between observed events and the members of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, hotspot
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 840; Prenosov: 6
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48.
Reconstruction of air shower events measured by the surface detectors of the TAx4 experiment
H. Jeong, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been investigated since the first discovery of the UHECRs to solve the mystery of the extremely high-energy universe. The Telescope Array times 4 (TAx4) experiment, which currently consists of 257 Surface Detectors (SDs) and 2 Fluorescence Detector (FD) stations, had been built in Utah, USA in 2019. The TAx4 SDs observe secondary particles in an extensive air shower induced by the UHECR, and we reconstruct arrival direction and energy of the UHECR using the signal intensities and timings measured by the SDs. We present the reconstruction procedure of the UHECR and the preliminary energy spectrum above 10~EeV measured by the TAx4 SDs.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 918; Prenosov: 4
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49.
Analysis of TAx4 hybrid trigger and events
S. Kim, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Telescope Array is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray hybrid detector in the Northern hemisphere. While the TAx4 Surface Detector (TAx4 SD) has a duty cycle of ~ 100%, it should be noted that the TAx4 Fluorescence Detector (TAx4 FD) observes the full longitudinal profile of the cosmic ray air showers and therefore is able to determine their energies more accurately than TAx4 SD. In addition, observing cosmic rays in hybrid mode (“hybrid events”) has several advantages. Events seen in hybrid mode by the TAx4 FD and SD are used to establish the energy scale of the TAx4 SD. Moreover, the FD longitudinal profile is used to determine the mass composition of the primary comic ray particles, when the event geometries are well constrained by FD and SD measurements simultaneously. Despite large differences in the TAx4 SD/FD stand-alone performances, both detector types complement each other in measuring important physical quantities. Since August 2019, direction, energy, and Xmax can be obtained from reconstructing hybrid events. In this poster, preliminary analysis of TAx4 hybrid trigger and TAx4 hybrid events will be presented with focus on energy and Xmax observations.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, hybrid trigger, ground array, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy, Xmax
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 1003; Prenosov: 6
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50.
Large-scale and multipolar anisotropies of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with energies above 4 EeV
R. de Almeida, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: More than half a century after the discovery of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), their origin is still an open question. The study of anisotropies in the arrival directions of such particles is an essential ingredient to solve this puzzle. We update our previous analysis of large-scale anisotropies observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory using the latest data collected before the AugerPrime upgrade. We select events with zenith angles up to 80 degrees, implying a sky coverage of 85%, and energies above 4 EeV, for which the surface detector of the Observatory is fully efficient. Dipolar and quadrupolar amplitudes are evaluated through a combined Fourier analysis of the event count rate in right ascension and azimuth. The analysis is performed in three energy bins with boundaries at 4, 8, 16 and 32 EeV and two additional cumulative bins with energies above 8 and 32 EeV. The most significant signal is a dipolar modulation in right ascension for energies above 8 EeV, as previously reported, with statistical significance of 6.6σ. Additionally, we report the measurements of the angular power spectrum for the same energy bins with the same dataset.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, dipole, quadropole, angular power spectrum, inclined showers
Objavljeno v RUNG: 03.10.2023; Ogledov: 978; Prenosov: 4
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