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61.
A search for ultra-high-energy photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory exploiting air-shower universality
P. Savina, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory is the most sensitive detector to primary photons with energies above ∼ 0.2 EeV. It measures extensive air showers using a hybrid technique that combines a fluorescence detector (FD) with a ground array of particle detectors (SD). The signatures of a photon-induced air shower are a larger atmospheric depth at the shower maximum (Xmax) and a steeper lateral distribution function, along with a lower number of muons with respect to the bulk of hadron-induced background. Using observables measured by the FD and SD, three photon searches in different energy bands are performed. In particular, between threshold energies of 1–10 EeV, a new analysis technique has been developed by combining the FD-based measurement of Xmax with the SD signal through a parameter related to its muon content, derived from the universality of the air showers. This technique has led to a better photon/hadron separation and, consequently, to a higher search sensitivity, resulting in a tighter upper limit than before. The outcome of this new analysis is presented here, along with previous results in the energy ranges below 1 EeV and above 10 EeV. From the data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory in about 15 years of operation, the most stringent constraints on the fraction of photons in the cosmic flux are set over almost three decades in energy.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, surface array, hybrid detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 1097; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,12 MB)
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62.
The UHECR dipole and quadrupole in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors
P. Tinyakov, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are still unknown, but assuming standard physics, they are expected to lie within a few hundred megaparsecs from us. Indeed, over cosmological distances cosmic rays lose energy to interactions with background photons, at a rate depending on their mass number and energy and properties of photonuclear interactions and photon backgrounds. The universe is not homogeneous at such scales, hence the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is expected to reflect the inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies; the shorter the energy loss lengths, the stronger the expected anisotropies. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields can blur and distort the picture, but the magnitudes of the largest-scale anisotropies, namely the dipole and quadrupole moments, are the most robust to their effects. Measuring them with no bias regardless of any higher-order multipoles is not possible except with full-sky coverage. In this work, we achieve this in three energy ranges (approximately 8-16 EeV, 16-32 EeV, and 32-∞ EeV) by combining surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and at the Telescope Array (TA) until 2019, before the completion of the upgrades of the arrays with new scintillator detectors. We find that the full-sky coverage achieved by combining Auger and TA data reduces the uncertainties on the north-south components of the dipole and quadrupole in half compared to Auger-only results.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array, indirect detection, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, anisotropy, large scale, fully sky coverage, dipole, quadropole
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 950; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,66 MB)
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63.
Event-by-event reconstruction of the shower maximum Xmax with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory using deep learning
J. Glombitza, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The measurement of the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays constitutes a prime challenge in astroparticle physics. Most detailed information on the composition can be obtained from measurements of the depth of maximum of air showers, Xmax, with the use of fluorescence telescopes, which can be operated only during clear and moonless nights. Using deep neural networks, it is now possible for the first time to perform an event-by-event reconstruction of Xmax with the Surface Detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Therefore, previously recorded data can be analyzed for information on Xmax, and thus, the cosmic-ray composition. Since the SD operates with a duty cycle of almost 100% and its event selection is less strict than for the Fluorescence Detector (FD), the gain in statistics with respect to the FD is almost a factor of 15 for energies above 10^19.5 eV. In this contribution, we introduce the neural network particularly designed for the SD of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We evaluate its performance using three different hadronic interaction models, verify its functionality using Auger hybrid measurements, and find that the method can extract mass information on an event level.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, surface detection, ground array, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, neural network, machine learning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 991; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,66 MB)
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64.
Mass composition of Telescope Array's surface detectors events using deep learning
I. Kharuk, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: We report on an improvement of deep learning techniques used for identifying primary particles of atmospheric air showers. The progress was achieved by using two neural networks. The first works as a classifier for individual events, while the second predicts fractions of elements in an ensemble of events based on the inference of the first network. For a fixed hadronic model, this approach yields an accuracy of 90% in identifying fractions of elements in an ensemble of events.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, ground array, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, deep learning, machine learning, neural networks
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 1146; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (788,87 KB)
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65.
Telescope Array anisotropy summary
I. Tkachev, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: In this talk, we summarise the results of recent anisotropy studies conducted by the Telescope Array (TA) collaboration. At largest scales we test the TA data for the presence of a dipole. On smaller scales, an update on the excess of events in the direction of Ursa Major previously found in the TA data will be presented. These flux variations may trace the distribution of UHECR sources. We will examine the data for correlations with large-scale structures in the nearby Universe, and as a result, hints for the chemical composition of primaries will be provided. We also discuss a related anisotropy of the UHECR spectrum.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, indirect detection, ground array, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, composition, energy spectrum, anisotropy
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 842; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,83 MB)
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66.
Downward Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes at the Pierre Auger Observatory?
R. Colalillo, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: At the Pierre Auger Observatory, designed primarily to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, phenomena related to atmospheric electricity are also observed. Particularly, events have been detected with the surface detector, characterized by long-lasting signals (tens of microseconds) and event footprints much larger (up to 200 km2) than those produced by the highest energy cosmic rays. Moreover, some of them appear to be accompanied by smaller events occurring in the same area within about 1 ms and probably produced by the same phenomenon. A previously reported correlation with the World Wide Lightning Location Network, as well as the observation of very low-altitude clouds, confirm that such events are related to thunderstorms. An ad-hoc reconstruction points to high-energy particles being produced very close to the ground, suggesting that they originate from electrons accelerated to relativistic energies in strong electric fields inside low clouds, as is the case for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes above thunderstorms. A clear explanation of the observed phenomenon is hindered by two facts. One is that the rate of such events, detected serendipitously, is very small (less than 2 events/year) and decreases further after optimization of the surface detector trigger for low-energy shower-events. The second is that most events show a puzzling lack of signals in the central part of the footprint. We have studied in detail both effects and will present such studies here. We developed a strategy for a dedicated trigger to enhance the detection efficiency for these events associated with atmospheric-electricity events.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, photons, electrons, gamma-ray flashes, lightning
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 941; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,42 MB)
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67.
Follow-up Search for UHE Photons from Gravitational Wave Sources with the Pierre Auger Observatory
P. Ruehl, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: Multimessenger astronomy has become increasingly important during the past decade. Some astronomical objects have already been successfully observed in the light of multiple messenger signals, allowing for a much deeper understanding of their physical properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory has taken part in multimessenger astronomy with an exhaustive exploration of the ultra-high-energy sky. In this contribution, for the first time, a search for UHE photons from the sources of gravitational waves is presented. Interactions with the cosmic background radiation fields are expected to attenuate any possible flux of ultra-high-energy photons from distant sources and a non-negligible background of air shower events with hadronic origin makes an unambiguous identification of primary photons a challenging task. In the analysis presented here, a selection strategy is applied to both GW sources and air shower events aiming to provide maximum sensitivity to a possible photon signal. At the same time, a window is kept open for hypothetical new-physics processes, which might allow for much larger interaction lengths of photons in the extragalactic medium. Preliminary results on the UHE photon fluence from a selection of GW sources, including the binary neutron star merger GW170817 are presented.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, fluorescence detection, ultra-high energy, photons, cosmic rays, anisotropy, gravitational waves, multimessenger
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 956; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (940,08 KB)
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68.
Performance and simulation of the surface detector array of the TAx4 experiment
K. Fujisue, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The TAx4 experiment is a project to observe highest energy cosmic rays by expanding the detectionarea of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment with newly constructed surface detectors (SDs) andfluorescence detectors (FDs). New SDs are arranged in a square grid with 2.08 km spacing atthe north east and south east of the TA SD array. We use CORSIKA simulations and implementthe calibration data of the new SDs to calculate the performance of the new SDs. We comparethe data with the simulation and validate the performance of the SDs. The comparison and theperformance will be shown in the presentation.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TAx4, indirect detection, ground array, surface detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, CORSIKA
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.09.2023; Ogledov: 1035; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,16 MB)
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69.
Outreach activities at the Pierre Auger Observatory
K.S. Caballero-Mora, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Opis: The Pierre Auger Observatory, sited in Malargüe, Argentina, is the largest observatory available for measuring ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR). The Auger Collaboration has measured and analysed an unprecedented number of UHECRs. Along with making important scientific discoveries, for example, the demonstration that cosmic rays above 8 EeV are of extragalactic origin and the observation of a new feature in the energy spectrum at around 13 EeV, outreach work has been carried out across the 18 participating countries and online. This program ranges from talks to a varied audience, to the creation of a local Visitor Center, which attracts 8000 visitors annually, to initiating masterclasses. Permanent and temporary exhibitions have been prepared both in reality and virtually. Science fairs for elementary- and high-school students have been organised, together with activities associated with interesting phenomena such as eclipses. In addition, we participate in international events such as the International Cosmic Day, Frontiers from H2020, and the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. Part of the Collaboration website is aimed at the general public. Here the most recent articles published are summarised. Thus the Collaboration informs people about work in our field, which may seem remote from everyday life. Furthermore, the Auger Observatory has been a seed for scientific and technological activities in and around Malargüe. Different outreach ventures that already have been implemented and others which are foreseen will be described.
Ključne besede: Pierre Auger Observatory, indirect detection, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, outreach, open data
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 907; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,94 MB)
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70.
Highlights from the Telescope Array experiment
Grigory I. Rubtsov, R. U. Abbasi, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, Yasuhiko Arai, R. Arimura, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, Douglas R. Bergman, Jon Paul Lundquist, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci (vabljeno predavanje)

Opis: The Telescope Array (TA) is the largest cosmic ray observatory in the Northern Hemisphere. It is designed to measure the properties of cosmic rays over a wide range of energies. TA with it's low energy extension (TALE) observe cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers between 2 PeV and 100 EeV in hybrid mode using multiple instruments, including an array of scintillator detectors at the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light. The statistics at the highest energies is being enhanced with the ongoing construction of the TAx4 experiment which will quadruple the surface area of the detector. We review the present status of the experiments and most recent physics results on the cosmic ray anisotropy, chemical composition and energy spectrum. Notable highlights include a new feature in the energy spectrum at about 10^19.2 eV, and a new clustering of events in the direction of Perseus-Pisces supercluster above this energy. We also report on updated diffuse photon flux limits and new spectrum and composition results in the lower energy range from the TALE extension.
Ključne besede: Telescope Array, TALE, low energy extension, TAx4, indirect detection, hybrid detection, ground array, fluorescence detection, Cherenkov light, ultra-high energy, cosmic rays, energy spectrum, composition, anisotropy
Objavljeno v RUNG: 26.09.2023; Ogledov: 1038; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,75 MB)
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