Prosodia e Foreign Accent - Prosody and Foreign Accent : Prominenza accentuale e deaccentazione in Italiano e Tedesco come lingue secondeAlessandra Zappoli
, 2012, magistrsko delo
Opis: This thesis investigates the production and acquisition of prosodic contours in Italian learners of German, and German learners of Italian as second languages (L2). The thesis compares speech production in L2 with speech production in the native language (L1). The goal is to verify whether the speech production in L2 is affected by Transfer phenomena that are linked to the phonological properties of the L1. The thesis also tests, in light of the Markedness Differential Hypothesis, whether the direction of acquisition - the acquisition of German as L2, being an L1 speaker of Italian vs. the acquisition of Italian as L2, being an L1 speaker of German – can predict a production in L2 connotated by Foreign Accent (FA). The thesis describes: i) the current state of the art of acquisitional theories of an L2 in adulthood; ii) the theoretical description of the patterns of prosodic prominence in Italian and German within the Autosegmental Theory of Intonation framework; iii) the interaction of the phonological structure with the Information Packaging of the Discourse Structure that differently affects the realization of prosodic patterns in Germanic and Romance languages. Finally, the thesis reports the preliminary results of a production experiment that adopts the paradigm of Swerts et. al (2002) in which participants utter a sequence of Noun-Phrases composed by a Noun and Adjective in which the Information Status rotates between the conditions of New, Given, and Contrastive information. The data highlight the presence of H+L* as the most frequently used Pitch Accent in the production of Italian speakers, that emerges also in the production of the German L2 speakers of Italian; in contrast, the data show the presence of Deaccentuation in the production of L1 speakers of German in correlation with the Given information status of a referent that is not successfully acquired by Italian L1 speakers of German as L2. The data indicate that it appears to be easier to successfully acquire the Italian prosodic system, being a native speaker of German, than vice-versa, supporting the MDH. The facilitatory effect is explainable by the less relevant role of the Discourse Structure in guiding the prominence patterns in Italian, which more heavily relies on the phonological structure, resulting in a less marked prosodic system compared to the prosodic system of German.
Ključne besede: pitch accents, prosody, foreign accent, prominence, second language acquisition, german, Italian, markedness, speech production
Objavljeno v RUNG: 06.12.2021; Ogledov: 1406; Prenosov: 0
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Uso dell'inglese L2 e correzione degli errori : corpus di due lezioni alla scuola secondaria di primo gradoGreta Mazzaggio
, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: L’obiettivo di questo studio è quello di portare nuovi dati al sempre vivo dibattito riguardante l’analisi degli errori durante la produzione linguistica in una lingua diversa da quella materna. Sono state analizzate con metodo contrastivo due lezioni svolte dalla medesima docente in due classi alla scuola secondaria di primo grado (qui per brevità scuola media): una lezione con alunni del primo anno e una con alunni del terzo anno. Si sono studiate le percentuali del parlato, sia dal punto di vista delle differenze docente-discente, sia da quello delle differenze prima-terza. Si sono cercate, inoltre, conferme delle teorie che vedono i docenti spesso intenti a correggere eccessivamente i discenti, a discapito della fluenza comunicativa.
Ključne besede: second language, foreign language, english as a second language, acquisition, errors
Objavljeno v RUNG: 20.09.2021; Ogledov: 1382; Prenosov: 46
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Theoretical and experimental aspects of numerosity and quantification in Lebanese Arabic : dissertationAli Al Moussaoui
, 2021, doktorska disertacija
Opis: A question that is receiving an increasing attention in linguistics research concerns the language components of counting. This topic is approached from syntactic, semantic and pragmatic points of view. While some accounts advocate for purely syntactic or semantic approaches of countability, other adopt hybrid accounts in which labor is divided between syntax and semantics. At the same time, research finds that there is a pragmatic component enriching the interpretation of countability and numerosity in language. This dissertation attempts to contribute into the lines of research concerned in the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects of countability with a focus on Lebanese Arabic (Henceforth LA), a language that has received little attention in the literature of counting.
In this dissertation, a broken agreement pattern in LA between the cardinal numerals and the post-numeral counted noun phrases is examined on the basis of a syntactic-semantic model of countability developed by Stepanov and Stateva (2018). We argue that the current existing model can be used to account for the countability broken agreement pattern in LA when necessary modifications are applied to it. The
success of this model in accounting for the numeral-noun-phrase agreement in LA is added to its success in similar missions in countability in Russian (Stepanov and Stateva 2018) and previously in Japanese (Watanabe 2010).
The pragmatic component of countability in LA is also examined from the angle of pragmatic strengthening. The traditional difference between singular nominals and plural nominals which makes a distinction between domains of atoms
and domains of sums is seriously challenged by current semantic and pragmatic research. The plural is found to be more complex than a simplistic view of more than one, and its interpretation has a pragmatic component which involves enriching the meaning of plurality against singularity. In our dissertation, we intend to examine an enriching pragmatic process of plural against duality in LA, a language that still preserves special morphological marking for duality. So, our research investigates the pragmatic strengthening of the plural morphology in LA against the dual morphology which results in at-least-three meaning of the plural.
On the assumption that pragmatic reasoning contributes to the interpretation of plural nominals, we extend our research to the area of bilingual LA speakers who can be an ideal environment to look into the cognitive processes involved in the interaction between two linguistic systems that have diverging features pertaining to a given linguistic phenomenon, which is countability in our study. We predict crosslinguistic variation in the interpretation of plural morphology. If languages like English associate plural with an at-least-two meaning as a result of pragmatic enrichment with an anti-singularity inference, then, in languages that
morphologically differentiate among singular, plural and dual number, the morphological plural is predicted to correspond to an at-least-three meaning. In this study, we ask whether the predicted variation in the interpretation of plural
morphology among the non-dual and dual-featuring languages is a locus of negative pragmatic transfer of features from LA as a mother tongue and English/ French as foreign languages.
Ključne besede: countability, numerosity, Lebanese Arabic, countability model, negative pragmatic transfer, and foreign language exposure
Objavljeno v RUNG: 16.07.2021; Ogledov: 2368; Prenosov: 117
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