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Insights into the single-particle composition, size, mixing state, and aspect ratio of freshly emitted mineral dust from field measurements in the Moroccan Sahara using electron microscopy
Agnesh Panta, Konrad Kandler, Andrés Alastuey, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Martina Klose, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. The chemical and morphological properties of mineral dust aerosols emitted by wind erosion from arid and semi-arid regions influence climate, ocean, and land ecosystems; air quality; and multiple socio-economic sectors. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust particle size distribution (PSD) in terms of its constituent minerals that typically result from the fragmentation of soil aggregates during wind erosion. The emitted dust PSD affects the duration of particle transport and thus each mineral's global distribution, along with its specific effect upon climate. This lack of understanding is largely due to the scarcity of relevant in situ measurements in dust sources. To advance our understanding of the physicochemical properties of the emitted dust PSD, we present insights into the elemental composition and morphology of individual dust particles collected during the FRontiers in dust minerAloGical coMposition and its Effects upoN climaTe (FRAGMENT) field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara in September 2019. We analyzed more than 300 000 freshly emitted individual particles by performing offline analysis in the laboratory using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Eight major particle-type classes were identified with clay minerals making up the majority of the analyzed particles both by number and mass, followed by quartz, whereas carbonates and feldspar contributed to a lesser extent. We provide an exhaustive analysis of the PSD and potential mixing state of different particle types, focusing largely on iron-rich (Fe oxide-hydroxides) and feldspar particles, which are key to the effects of dust upon radiation and clouds, respectively. Nearly pure or externally mixed Fe oxide-hydroxides are present mostly in diameters smaller than 2 µm, with the highest fraction below 1 µm at about 3.75 % abundance by mass. Fe oxide-hydroxides tend to be increasingly internally mixed with other minerals, especially clays, as particle size increases; i.e., the volume fraction of Fe oxide-hydroxides in aggregates decreases with particle size. Pure (externally mixed) feldspar represented 3.2 % of all the particles by mass, of which we estimated about a 10th to be K-feldspar. The externally mixed total feldspar and K-feldspar abundances are relatively invariant with particle size, in contrast to the increasing abundance of feldspar-like (internally mixed) aggregates with particle size with mass fractions ranging from 5 % to 18 %. We also found that overall the median aspect ratio is rather constant across particle size and mineral groups, although we obtain slightly higher aspect ratios for internally mixed particles. The detailed information on the composition of freshly emitted individual dust particles and quantitative analysis of their mixing state presented here can be used to constrain climate models including mineral species in their representation of the dust cycle.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, Moroccan Sahara, electron microscopy
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.05.2024; Ogledov: 173; Prenosov: 3
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Aerosol dust absorption : measurements with a reference instrument (PTAAM-2[lambda]) and impact on the climate as measured in airborne JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns
Jesús Yus-Díez, Luka Drinovec, Marija Bervida, Uroš Jagodič, Blaž Žibert, Griša Močnik, 2024, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Aerosol absorption coefficient measurements classically feature a very large uncertainty, especially given the absence of a reference method. The most used approach using filter-photometers is by measuring the attenuation of light through a filter where aerosols are being deposited. This presents several artifacts, with cross-sensitivity to scattering being most important at high single scattering albedo with the error exceeding 100%. We present lab campaign results where we have resuspended dust samples from different mid-latitude desert regions and measured the dust absorption and scattering coefficients, their mass concentration and the particle size distribution. The absorption coefficients were measured with two types of filter photometers: a Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer (AE33). The  dual-wavelength photo-thermal interferometer (PTAAM-2λ) was employed as the reference. Scattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The mass concentration was obtained after the weighting of filters before and after the sampling, and the particle size distribution (PSD) was measured by means of optical particle counters (Grimm 11-D).Measurements of the scattering with the nephelometer and absorption with the PTAAM-2λ we obtained the filter photometer multiple scattering parameter and cross-sensitivity to scattering as a function of the different sample properties. Moreover, by determining the mass concentration and the absorption coefficients of the samples, we derived the mass absorption cross-sections of the different dust samples, which can be linked to their size distribution as well as to their mineralogical composition.The focus of the JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands was on the calibration/validation of the ESA Aeolus satellite ALADIN lidar, however, the campaign also featured secondary scientific climate-change objectives. As part of this campaign, a light aircraft was set-up for in-situ aerosol measurements. Several flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to and above 3000 m above sea level during intense dust transport events. The aircraft was instrumented to determine the absorption coefficients using a pair of Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAPs) measuring in the fine and coarse fractions separately, with parallel measurements of size distributions in these size fractions using two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). In addition, we performed measurements of the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer.The combination of the absorption and PSD with source identification techniques enabled the separation of the contributions to  absorption by dust and black carbon. The atmospheric heating rate of these two contributions was determined by adding the irradiance measurements. Therefore, the integration of the results from the Using laboratory resuspension experiments  to interpret the airborne measurements is of great relevance for the determination  of the radiative effect of the Saharan Aerosol Layer as measured over the tropical Atlantic ocean.
Ključne besede: black carbon, mineral dust, Saharan dust, atmospheric heating rate, climate change, airborne measurements
Objavljeno v RUNG: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 480; Prenosov: 2
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Contribution of black carbon and desert dust to aerosol absorption in the atmosphere of the Eastern Arabian Peninsula
Mohamed M. K. Mahfouz, Gregor Skok, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, M. R. Alfarra, Shamjad Moosakutty, Bálint Alföldy, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Asta Gregorič, Rok Podlipec, Griša Močnik, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Discriminating the absorption coefficients of aerosol mineral dust and black carbon (BC) in different aerosol size fractions is a challenge because of BC's large mass absorption cross-section compared to dust. Ambient aerosol wavelength dependent absorption coefficients in supermicron and submicron size fractions were determined with a high time resolution. The measurements were performed simultaneously using identical systems at an urban and a regional background site in Qatar. At each site, measurements were taken by co-located Aethalometers, one with a virtual impactor (VI) and the other with a PM1 cyclone to respectively collect super-micron-enhanced and submicron fractions. The combined measurement of aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients enabled the particles to be classified based on their optical properties' wavelength dependence. The classification reveals the presence of BC internally/externally mixed with different aerosols. Helium ion microscopy images provided information concerning the extent of mineral dust in the submicron fraction. The determination of absorption coefficients during dust storms and non-dust periods was used to establish the absorption Ångström exponent for dust and BC. Non-parametric wind regression, potential source contribution function and back-trajectory analysis reveal major regional sources of desert dust associated with north-westerly winds and a minor local dust contribution. In contrast, major BC sources found locally were associated with south-westerly winds with a smaller contribution made by offshore emissions transported by north-easterly and easterly winds. The use of a pair of Aethalometers with VI and PM1 inlets separates contributions of BC and dust to the aerosol absorption coefficient.
Ključne besede: aerosol absorption, black carbon, mineral dust, desert dust, Arabian Peninsula
Objavljeno v RUNG: 29.02.2024; Ogledov: 565; Prenosov: 6
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Variability in sediment particle size, mineralogy, and Fe mode of occurrence across dust-source inland drainage basins : the case of the lower Drâa Valley, Morocco
Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Cristina González-Flórez, Agnesh Panta, Jesús Yus-Díez, Cristina Reche, Patricia Córdoba, Natalia Moreno, Andrés Alastuey, Konrad Kandler, Martina Klose, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The effects of desert dust upon climate and ecosystems depend strongly on its particle size and size-resolved mineralogical composition. However, there is very limited quantitative knowledge on the particle size and composition of the parent sediments along with their variability within dust-source regions, particularly in dust emission hotspots. The lower Drâa Valley, an inland drainage basin and dust hotspot region located in the Moroccan Sahara, was chosen for a comprehensive analysis of sediment particle size and mineralogy. Different sediment type samples (n= 42) were collected, including paleo-sediments, paved surfaces, crusts, and dunes, and analysed for particle-size distribution (minimally and fully dispersed samples) and mineralogy. Furthermore, Fe sequential wet extraction was carried out to characterise the modes of occurrence of Fe, including Fe in Fe (oxyhydr)oxides, mainly from goethite and hematite, which are key to dust radiative effects; the poorly crystalline pool of Fe (readily exchangeable ionic Fe and Fe in nano-Fe oxides), relevant to dust impacts upon ocean biogeochemistry; and structural Fe. Results yield a conceptual model where both particle size and mineralogy are segregated by transport and deposition of sediments during runoff of water across the basin and by the precipitation of salts, which causes a sedimentary fractionation. The proportion of coarser particles enriched in quartz is higher in the highlands, while that of finer particles rich in clay, carbonates, and Fe oxides is higher in the lowland dust emission hotspots. There, when water ponds and evaporates, secondary carbonates and salts precipitate, and the clays are enriched in readily exchangeable ionic Fe, due to sorption of dissolved Fe by illite. The results differ from currently available mineralogical atlases and highlight the need for observationally constrained global high-resolution mineralogical data for mineral-speciated dust modelling. The dataset obtained represents an important resource for future evaluation of surface mineralogy retrievals from spaceborne spectroscopy.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, aerosols, geology
Objavljeno v RUNG: 12.01.2024; Ogledov: 733; Prenosov: 3
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Unmanned aerial vehicles for the Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign
Franco Marenco, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: During June 2022, the Cyprus Institute (CyI) took part in the ASKOS experiment in Mindelo, Cape Verde, with several of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), fitted with a number of in-situ aerosol instruments able to profile the Saharan Air Layer between the surface and an altitude of 5,300 m. In addition to ASKOS objectives, transnational access project Diurnal vAriation of the vertically resolved siZe distribution in the Saharan Air Layer  (DAZSAL) was also carried out at the same time. The campaign aimed at validating the Aeolus L2A product in the presence of dust and marine aerosols, estimating the influence on Aeolus products of non-spherical particles, evaluating the impact of particle orientation, and study the diurnal cycle of the dust size-distribution at high altitude. In this presentation we will present and discuss the scientific objectives, the context, the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) that we developed in-house, and the instruments used, together with their limitations, calibration methods, uncertainties, challenges and difficulties encountered. We will also discuss the logistical and planning challenges that such a campaign entails.Operations took place from the Cesaria Evora International Airport. The instruments deployed on-board the UAVs permitted to evaluate the height-resolved particle size-distribution between 0.1 and 40 µm and detect cases of particle orientation, to complement the observations with ground-based remote sensing set out by NOA and TROPOS. Moreover, 24 high-altitude dust samples were collected on impactors, for further analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy. In total, 25 scientific flights were performed on 12 flying days (almost half of which at night). Five flights were conducted during Aeolus overpasses. Weather has been a determining factor for both the ground-based remote sensing operations and the UAS operation, and airport traffic has been another constraint that needed to be accounted for, in the UAS operation.
Ključne besede: UAV, mineral dust, climate change, Aeolus satellite
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 724; Prenosov: 3
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Dust aerosols' mineralogy in the chemical transport model COSMO- MUSCAT during JATAC and comparison with lidar and in-situ data
Sofía Gómez Maqueo Anaya, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: Mineral dust aerosols are composed from a complex assemblage of various minerals depending on the region they come from. Considering that minerals have their distinct physicochemical properties, differences on mineral dust aerosols climatic impact will arise as a consequence of distinct mineral content.Chemical transport models typically assume that mineral dust aerosols have uniform composition, despite the known regional variations in the mineral components. This study adds mineralogical information to the mineral dust emission scheme used in the chemical transport model, COSMO-MUSCAT.Here we show some steps of the inclusion of mineralogy to the emission scheme. Results of the simulated mineral dust aerosols are shown with their respective mineralogy from sources in Africa for an example case from the JATAC campaign in September 2021. The results of the simulated mineral dust aerosol are compared with lidar and in-situ data measured at Mindelo, Cape Verde. Furthermore, the comparison with the lidar retrieved vertical profiles at Mindelo, highlights a possible link between the mineral dust aerosol optical properties and the distinct minerals found within them.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, Aeolus satellite, climate change
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 627; Prenosov: 2
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The Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign 2021/2022 overview : atmospheric science and satellite validation in the tropics
Thorsten Fehr, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: ESA’s Aeolus satellite observations are expected to have the biggest impact for the improvement of numerical weather prediction in the Tropics. An important case relating to the predictability of tropical weather systems is the outflow of Saharan dust, its interaction with cloud microphysics and impact on the development of tropical storms over the Atlantic Ocean.The Joint Aeolus Tropical Atlantic Campaign (JATAC) deployed on Cabo Verde (2021/2022) and the US Virgin Islands (2021) supported the validation and preparation of the ESA missions Aeolus, EarthCARE and WIVERN, and addressed science objectives regarding the Saharan Aerosol layer, African Easterly Waves and Jet, Tropical Easterly Jet, and the Intertropical Convergence Zone, as well as their relation to the formation of convective systems, and the long-range transport of dust and its impact on air quality.JATAC started in July 2021 with the deployment of ground-based instruments in the frame of the ASKOS project at the Ocean Science Center Mindelo, including the eVe and PollyXT lidars, and a W-band Doppler cloud radar. By mid-August, the CPEX-AW campaign started operations from the US Virgin Islands with NASA’s DC-8 flying laboratory in the Western Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean carrying the Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN), Airborne Precipitation and Cloud Radar (APR-3), Water Vapor DIAL and HSRL (HALO), microwave sounder (HAMSR) and dropsondes. In September the DLR Falcon-20 aircraft, carrying the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D) and the 2-µm Doppler wind lidar, and the Safire Falcon-20, carrying the high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar (LNG), the RASTA Doppler cloud radar, in-situ cloud and aerosol instruments, and dropsondes, were deployed to Sal in the frame of the AVATAR-T and CADDIWA projects. The Aerovizija Advantic WT-10 light aircraft with optical particle spectrometers, filter-photometers and nephelometers for in-situ aerosol characterisation was operating in close coordination with the ground-based observations in the CAVA-AW project.The activities continued in June 2022 when the ASKOS ground based observations were enhanced with UAV airborne in-situ aerosol measurements deployed by the Cyprus Institute, solar radiation measurements supported by PMOD/WRC, dust particle orientation measurements (WALL-E lidar), and radiosonde releases equipped with electric field-mills. NASA deployed the DC-8 aircraft all September to Sal with the 2021 payload in the framework of the CPEX-CV activity, including regular radiosonde launches. As in 2021, the Aerovizija aircraft took part with in-situ aerosol measurements during two weeks in September. JATAC was supported by dedicated numerical weather and dust simulations supporting forecasting efforts and addressing open science questions.Around 60 scientific flights of four aircraft, with an additional 25 UAV flights, were performed during JATAC. 23 Aeolus orbits were underflown, many of them with simultaneous observations of multiple aircraft collocated with ground-based observations. In addition, the science objectives were fully covered through the large number of flights, ground based cloud and aerosol observations, regular radiosondes and dropsondes.Overall, JATAC activities have resulted in a high-quality and comprehensive dataset supporting a wide range of tropical atmospheric research, the validation of Aeolus and other satellites, and have provided key reference data for the development future Earth Observation missions.
Ključne besede: Aeolus satellite, airborne measurements, mineral dust, cal/val, calibration, validation
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 749; Prenosov: 4
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Airborne in-situ measurements during JATAC/CAVA-AW 2021/2022 campaigns : first climate-relevant results
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marija Bervida, Luka Drinovec, Blaž Žibert, Matevž Lenarčič, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The JATAC campaign in September 2021 and September 2022 on and above Cape Verde Islands have resulted in a large dataset of in-situ and remote measurements. In addition to the calibration/validation of the ESA’s Aeolus ALADIN during the campaign, the campaign also featured secondary scientific objectives related to climate change. The atmosphere above the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of West Africa is ideal for the study of the Saharan Aerosol layer (SAL), the long-range transport of dust, and the regional influence of SAL aerosols on the climate. We have instrumented a light aircraft (Advantic WT-10) with instrumentation for the in-situ aerosol characterization. Ten flights were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean up to over 3000 m above sea level during two intense dust transport events. PollyXT, and EvE lidars were deployed at the Ocean Science Center, measuring the vertical optical properties of aerosols and were also used to plan the flights. The particle light absorption coefficient was determined at three different wavelengths with Continuous Light Absorption Photometers (CLAP). They were calibrated with the dual wavelength photo-thermal interferometric measurement of the aerosol light-absorption coefficient in the laboratory. The particle size distributions above 0.3 µm diameter were measured with two Grimm 11-D Optical Particle Size Spectrometers (OPSS). These measurements were conducted separately for the fine aerosol fraction and the enriched coarse fraction using an isokinetic inlet and a pseudo-virtual impactor, respectively. The aerosol light scattering and backscattering coefficients were measured with an Ecotech Aurora 4000 nephelometer. The instrument used a separate isokinetic inlet and was calibrated prior to and its calibration validated after the campaign with CO2. We have measured the total and diffuse solar irradiance with a DeltaT SPN1 pyranometer. CO2 concentration, temperature, aircraft GPS position altitude, air and ground speed were also measured. The in-situ single-scattering albedo Angstrom exponent and the lidar depolarization ratio will be compared as two independent parameters indicating the presence of Saharan dust. We will show differences between homogeneous Saharan dust layer in space (horizontally and vertically) and time and events featuring strong horizontal gradients in aerosol composition and concentration, and layering in the vertical direction. These layers often less than 100 m thick, separated by layers of air with no dust. Complex mixtures of aerosols in the outflow of Saharan dust over the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics will be characterized. We will show the in-situ atmospheric heating/cooling rate and provide insight into the regional and local effects of this heating of the dust layers. These measurements will support of the research on evolution, dynamics, and predictability of tropical weather systems and provide input into and verification of the climate models.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, climate change, heating rate, black carbon, Aeolus satellite, airborne measurements
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 704; Prenosov: 4
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Profiling Saharan airborne dust with UAV-based in-situ instrumentation during the ASKOS experiment in Cape Verde
Maria Kezoudi, Griša Močnik, 2023, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Opis: The ASKOS experimental campaign of European Space Agency (ESA) was organised by the National Observatory of Athens, and aimed at the calibration and validation of the Aeolus satellite aerosol/cloud product. Airborne observations were performed by the Climate and Atmosphere Research Centre (CARE-C) team of the Cyprus Institute at the Cesaria Evora International Airport of the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde between 10 and 30 June 2022. These in-situ aerosol measurements were conducted using the advanced Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) of the Unmanned System Research Laboratory (USRL), equipped with specialised aerosol in-situ sensors, capturing the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) from ground up to 5.3 km Above Sea Level (ASL). The new custom-designed Composite Bird (CoBi) USRL and Skywalker UAVs (Kezoudi et al., 2021), were equipped with Optical Particle Counters (OPCs), samplers and backscatter sondes.25 UAV vertical flights were performed in total, with 11 of them during night. The altitude of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) was mainly observed from ground up to about 1.0 km ASL, whereas during most of the flights, high concentrations of dust particles were found between 1.5 and 5.0 km ASL. Results obtained from OPCs show the presence of particles sizing up to 20 um within MBL and up to 40 um within SAL. Further information on morphology and mineralogy of observed particles will be given by the offline analysis of collected samples under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). COBALD observations alongside ground-based lidar measurements agree on the presence of non-spherical particles within dust layers.  Ongoing exploitation of airborne observations along with coincident and collocated ground-based measurements will provide a complete picture for comparison with Aeolus data, particularly in relation to aerosols, where we have the most to learn.
Ključne besede: mineral dust, UAV, airborne measurements, climate change, Aeolus satellite
Objavljeno v RUNG: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 748; Prenosov: 4
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Insights into the size-resolved dust emission from field measurements in the Moroccan Sahara
Cristina González-Flórez, Martina Klose, Andrés Alastuey, Sylvain Dupont, Jerónimo Escribano, Vicken Etyemezian, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Yue Huang, Konrad Kandler, Jesús Yus-Díez, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Atmospheric mineral dust consists of tiny mineral particles that are emitted by wind erosion from arid regions. Its particle size distribution (PSD) affects its impact on the Earth's system. Nowadays, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust PSD and a lot of debate about its variability. Here, we try to address these issues based on the measurements performed during a wind erosion and dust emission field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara within the framework of FRAGMENT project.
Ključne besede: aerosol particles, mineral dust, emission processes, climate
Objavljeno v RUNG: 23.10.2023; Ogledov: 997; Prenosov: 5
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