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Yearlong variability of oxidative potential of particulate matter in an urban Mediterranean environment
D. Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Iasonas Stavroulas, T. Fang, Maria Lianou, Eleni Liakakou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, R. Weber, Athanasios Nenes, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The oxidative potential (OP) of fine and coarse fractions of ambient aerosols was studied in the urban environment of Athens, Greece. OP was quantified using a dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, applied to the water soluble fraction of aerosol that was extracted from 361 fine and 84 coarse mode of 24-h and 12-h filter samples over a one-year period. During the cold period, samples were collected on a 12-h basis, to assess the impact of night-time biomass burning emissions from domestic heating on OP. The chemical characteristics of aerosols were measured in parallel using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitoring (ACSM) and a 7-wavelength Aethalometer. A source apportionment analysis on the ACSM data resulted in the identification of organic aerosol (OA) factors on a seasonal basis. A good correlation of OP with NO3−, NH4+, BC (Black Carbon), Organics and LV-OOA (low volatility oxygenated OA) was found during winter, revealing the importance of combustion and aging processes for OP. During the summertime, a good correlation between OP and SO4−2 and NH4+indicates its association with regional aerosol – thus the importance of oxidative aging that reduces its association with any characteristic source. Multiple regression analysis during winter revealed that highly oxygenated secondary aerosol (LV-OOA) and, to a lesser extent, fresh biomass burning (BBOA) and fossil fuel (HOA) organic aerosol, are the prime contributors to the OP of fine aerosol, with extrinsic toxicities of 54 ± 22 pmol min−1 μg−1, 28 ± 7 and 17 ± 4 pmol min−1μg−1, respectively. In summer, OP cannot be attributed to any of the identified components and corresponds to a background aerosol value. In winter however, the regression model can reproduce satisfactorily the water soluble DTT activity of fine aerosol, providing a unique equation for the estimation of aerosol OP in an urban Mediterranean environment.
Ključne besede: oxidative potential, reactive oxygen species, DTT assay, particulate matter, urban aerosol
Objavljeno v RUNG: 13.05.2024; Ogledov: 367; Prenosov: 0
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Field evaluation of low-cost PM sensors (Purple Air PA-II) under variable urban air quality conditions, in Greece
Iasonas Stavroulas, Georgios Grivas, Panagiotis Michalopoulos, Eleni Liakakou, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Kyriaki Maria Fameli, Nikolaos Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Recent advances in particle sensor technologies have led to an increased development and utilization of low-cost, compact, particulate matter (PM) monitors. These devices can be deployed in dense monitoring networks, enabling an improved characterization of the spatiotemporal variability in ambient levels and exposure. However, the reliability of their measurements is an important prerequisite, necessitating rigorous performance evaluation and calibration in comparison to reference-grade instrumentation. In this study, field evaluation of Purple Air PA-II devices (low-cost PM sensors) is performed in two urban environments and across three seasons in Greece, in comparison to different types of reference instruments. Measurements were conducted in Athens (the largest city in Greece with nearly four-million inhabitants) for five months spanning over the summer of 2019 and winter/spring of 2020 and in Ioannina, a medium-sized city in northwestern Greece (100,000 inhabitants) during winter/spring 2019–2020. The PM2.5 sensor output correlates strongly with reference measurements (R2 = 0.87 against a beta attenuation monitor and R2 = 0.98 against an optical reference-grade monitor). Deviations in the sensor-reference agreement are identified as mainly related to elevated coarse particle concentrations and high ambient relative humidity. Simple and multiple regression models are tested to compensate for these biases, drastically improving the sensor’s response. Large decreases in sensor error are observed after implementation of models, leading to mean absolute percentage errors of 0.18 and 0.12 for the Athens and Ioannina datasets, respectively. Overall, a quality-controlled and robustly evaluated low-cost network can be an integral component for air quality monitoring in a smart city. Case studies are presented along this line, where a network of PA-II devices is used to monitor the air quality deterioration during a peri-urban forest fire event affecting the area of Athens and during extreme wintertime smog events in Ioannina, related to wood burning for residential heating.
Ključne besede: particulate matter, PM2.5, air quality, low-cost sensors, optical particle counter
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 341; Prenosov: 3
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Intra- and inter-city variability of ▫$PM_2.5$▫ concentrations in Greece as determined with a low-cost sensor network
Konstantinos Dimitriou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Georgios Grivas, Charalampos Chatzidiakos, Georgios Kosmopoulos, Andreas Kazantzidis, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Athanasios Karagioras, Nikolaos Hatzianastassiou, Spyros N. Pandis, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Measurements of PM2.5 concentrations in five major Greek cities over a two-year period using calibrated low-cost sensor-based particulate matter (PM) monitors (Purple Air PA-II) were combined with local meteorological parameters, synoptic patterns and air mass residence time models to investigate the factors controlling PM2.5 spatiotemporal variability over continental Greece. Fourteen sensors nodes in Athens, Patras, Ioannina, Xanthi, and Thermi (in the Metropolitan Area of Thessaloniki) were selected out of more than 100 of a countrywide network for detailed analysis. The cities have populations ranging from 65k to 3M inhabitants and cover different latitudes along the South-North axis. High correlations between the daily average PM2.5 levels were observed among all sites, indicating strong intra- and inter-city covariance of concentrations, both in cold and warm periods. Higher PM2.5 concentrations in all cities during the cold period were primarily associated with low temperatures and stagnant anticyclonic conditions, favoring the entrapment of residential heating emissions from biomass burning. Anticyclonic conditions were also connected to an increased frequency of PM2.5 episodes, exceeding the updated daily guideline value (15 μg m−3) of the World Health Organization (WHO). During the warm period, nearly uniform PM2.5 levels were encountered across continental Greece, independently of their population size. This uniformity strongly suggests the importance of long-range transport and regional secondary aerosol formation for PM2.5 during this period. Peak concentrations were associated mainly with regional northern air flows over Greece and the Balkan Peninsula. The use of the measurements from dense air quality sensor networks, provided that a robust calibration protocol and continuous data quality assurance practices are followed, appears to be an efficient tool to gain insights on the levels and variability of PM2.5 concentrations, underpinning the characterization of spatial and seasonal particularities and supporting real-time public information and warning.
Ključne besede: particulate matter, PM2.5, biomass burning, low-cost sensors, purple air PA-II, concentration weighted trajectory, potential source contribution function
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 376; Prenosov: 2
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Rolling vs. seasonal PMF : real-world multi-site and synthetic dataset comparison
Marta Via, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Benjamin Chazeau, Hasna Chebaicheb, Jianhui Jiang, Hannes Keernik, Chunshui Lin, Nicolas Marchand, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Abstract. Particulate matter (PM) has become a major concern in terms of human health and climate impact. In particular, the source apportionment (SA) of organic aerosols (OA) present in submicron particles (PM1) has gained relevance as an atmospheric research field due to the diversity and complexity of its primary sources and secondary formation processes. Moreover, relatively simple but robust instruments such as the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are now widely available for the near-real-time online determination of the composition of the non-refractory PM1. One of the most used tools for SA purposes is the source-receptor positive matrix factorisation (PMF) model. Even though the recently developed rolling PMF technique has already been used for OA SA on ACSM datasets, no study has assessed its added value compared to the more common seasonal PMF method using a practical approach yet. In this paper, both techniques were applied to a synthetic dataset and to nine European ACSM datasets in order to spot the main output discrepancies between methods. The main advantage of the synthetic dataset approach was that the methods' outputs could be compared to the expected “true” values, i.e. the original synthetic dataset values. This approach revealed similar apportionment results amongst methods, although the rolling PMF profile's adaptability feature proved to be advantageous, as it generated output profiles that moved nearer to the truth points. Nevertheless, these results highlighted the impact of the profile anchor on the solution, as the use of a different anchor with respect to the truth led to significantly different results in both methods. In the multi-site study, while differences were generally not significant when considering year-long periods, their importance grew towards shorter time spans, as in intra-month or intra-day cycles. As far as correlation with external measurements is concerned, rolling PMF performed better than seasonal PMF globally for the ambient datasets investigated here, especially in periods between seasons. The results of this multi-site comparison coincide with the synthetic dataset in terms of rolling–seasonal similarity and rolling PMF reporting moderate improvements. Altogether, the results of this study provide solid evidence of the robustness of both methods and of the overall efficiency of the recently proposed rolling PMF approach.
Ključne besede: particulate matter, synthetic dataset comparison, source apportionment, organic aerosols
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 391; Prenosov: 4
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Increase in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environment : Increase in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environment
Marta Via, Maria Cruz Minguillon, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The evolution of fine aerosol (PM1) species as well as the contribution of potential sources to the total organic aerosol (OA) at an urban background site in Barcelona, in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB) was investigated. For this purpose, a quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitor (Q-ACSM) was deployed to acquire real-time measurements for two 1-year periods: May 2014–May 2015 (period A) and September 2017–October 2018 (period B). Total PM1 concentrations showed a slight decrease (from 10.1 to 9.6 μgm�3 from A to B), although the relative contribution of inorganic and organic compounds varied significantly. Regarding inorganic compounds, SO42- , black carbon(BC) and NH4+ showed a significant decrease from period A to B (21 %, 18% and 9 %, respectively), whilst NO3- concentrations were higher in B (8 %). Source apportionment revealed OA contained 46% and 70% secondary OA (SOA) in periods A and B, respectively. Two secondary oxygenated OA sources (OOA) were differentiated by their oxidation status (i.e. ageing): less oxidized (LO-OOA) and more oxidized (MO-OOA). Disregarding winter periods, when LO-OOA production was not favoured, LO-OOA transformation into MO-OOA was found to be more effective in period B. The lowest LO-OOA-to-MO-OOA ratio, excluding winter, was in September–October 2018 (0.65), implying an accumulation of aged OA after the high temperature and solar radiation conditions in the summer season. In addition to temperature, SOA (sum of OOA factors) was enhanced by exposure to NOx-polluted ambient and other pollutants, especially to O3 and during afternoon hours. The anthropogenic primary OA sources identified, cooking-related OA (COA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA), decreased from period A to B in both absolute concentrations and relative contribution (as a whole, 44% and 30 %, respectively). However, their concentrations and proportion to OA grew rapidly during highly polluted episodes. The influence of certain atmospheric episodes on OA sources was also assessed. Both SOA factors were boosted with long- and medium-range circulations, especially those coming from inland Europe and the Mediterranean (triggering mainly MO-OOA) and summer breeze-driven regional circulation (mainly LO-OOA). In contrast, POA was enhanced either during air-renewal episodes or stagnation anticyclonic events.
Ključne besede: aerosol, organic aerosol, source apportionment, PM1, particulate matter
Objavljeno v RUNG: 10.05.2024; Ogledov: 379; Prenosov: 3
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Real-time characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in the Delhi megacity area during late winter
Vipul Lalchandan, Varun Kumar, Anna Tobler, M.T. Navaneeth, Suneeti Mishra, J. G. Slowik, Deepika Bhattu, Pragati Rai, Rangu Satish, Dilip Ganguly, Tiwari Tiwari, Neeraj Rastogi, Tiwari Sashi, Griša Močnik, André S. H. Prévôt, Sachchida Tripathi, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: National Capital Region (NCR) encompassing New Delhi is one of the most polluted urban metropolitan areas in the world. Real-time chemical characterization of fine particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) was carried out using three aerosol mass spectrometers, two aethalometers, and one single particle soot photometer (SP2) at two sites in Delhi (urban) and one site located ~40 km downwind of Delhi, during January-March, 2018. The campaign mean PM2.5 (NR-PM2.5 + BC) concentrations at the two urban sites were 153.8±109.4 μg.m-3 and 127.8±83.2 μg.m-3, respectively, whereas PM1 (NR-PM1 + BC) was 72.3 ± 44.0 μg.m-3 at the downwind site. PM2.5 particles were composed mostly of organics (43-44)% followed by chloride (14-17)%, ammonium (9-11)%, nitrate (9%), sulfate (8-10)%, and black carbon (11-16)%, whereas PM1 particles were composed of 47% organics, 13% sulfate as well as ammonium, 11% nitrate as well as chloride, and 5% black carbon. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was done using positive matrix factorization (PMF), solved using an advanced multi-linear engine (ME-2) model. Highly mass-resolved OA mass spectra at one urban and downwind site were factorized into three primary organic aerosol (POA) factors including one traffic-related and two solid-fuel combustion (SFC), and three oxidized OA (OOA) factors. Whereas unit mass resolution OA at the other urban site was factorized into two POA factors related to traffic and SFC, and one OOA factor. OOA constituted a majority of the total OA mass (45-55)% with maximum contribution during afternoon hours ~(70-80)%. Significant differences in the absolute OOA concentration between the two urban sites indicated the influence of local emissions on the oxidized OA formation. Similar PM chemical composition, diurnal and temporal variations at the three sites suggest similar type of sources affecting the particulate pollution in Delhi and adjoining cities, but variability in mass concentration suggest more local influence than regional.
Ključne besede: source apportionment, air pollution, particulate matter, Delhi
Objavljeno v RUNG: 25.01.2021; Ogledov: 3667; Prenosov: 0
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Household and road dust as indicators of airborne particulate matter elemental composition : dissertation
Klemen Teran, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Household dust (HD) and road dust (RD) are widespread and easily accessible urban sediments, which are influenced by deposition of airborne particulate matter (PM). Since airborne PM is considered to be one of the most important pollutants in urban areas, with significant adverse effects on human health, a better understanding of its elemental composition and dispersion mechanisms is needed. The present study examines whether the HD and RD elemental composition can be used as a quick alternative method for the determination of corresponding PM elemental composition over a selected area. In summer 2016, HD, RD, and topsoil samples were collected from 249 sampling locations distributed across rural, urban, and industrial areas in Slovenia. The collected samples were sieved for particle diameters below 63 μm and analysed for 53 elements with ICP-MS after aqua regia digestion. SEM/EDS analyses were applied for the determination of characteristic particles at the microlevel. Finally, the elemental composition of HD and RD was compared with the PM10 elemental composition obtained from National Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring governed by Slovenian Environmental Agency (ARSO) to determine any potential connection between them. The results show that HD and RD are considerably enriched with a large set of elements compared to the topsoil. Correlations and factor analyses show that spatial distribution of factor scores in RD revealed strong regional trends, connected with soil resuspension (Al, Ce, Ga, K, La, Li, P, Rb, Sc and Y) or with anthropogenic sources such as traffic (Ag, Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn), steel mill emissions (Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni and W) and construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr). In contrast, HD elemental composition was highly variable between sampling locations. Variability was probably caused by indoor sources, such as smoking (Ce and La), biomass combustion (K, P and Rb), construction material decomposition (Ca and Sr) and residents’ professional occupation: dental care employees (Ag, Au, Pd) and employees in the metal-processing industry (Cr, Mo, Ni). Among deposited particles in RD, urbanization processes, such as fossil fuel combustion and traffic emissions, including brake pad abrasion and tyre wear, contributed the largest share of particles with anomalous elemental composition. Brake pad abrasion, for instance, contributed Ba-, Cu-, Sn-, and Zn-enriched irregular, angular and tabular particles, while tyre wear produced elongated rubber particles with traces of Ba, Cu, and Zn. RD from urban areas showed significantly higher elemental levels of Ag, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mo, Nb, Pb, Pt, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Zn, and W in comparison to the rural environment, indicating the strong impact of urbanization on RD elemental composition. Another important anthropogenic source of deposited particles in RD were steel mills. Strong anomalies of Cr, Mo and Ni were detected in their vicinity. Their elemental levels decreased with distancing from the plan location, reaching urban background levels between 15 and 20 km from the mills. SEM/EDS analyses identified enrichments of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, and W in spherical particles and particles with partially melted surfaces, which were found only in the proximity of steel mills, indicating their influence of the PM deposition. Comparison of RD and the corresponding PM10 elemental composition showed that the RD fraction with particle diameters below 63 μm reflects PM10 elemental composition for the last 30 to 90 days for Cr, Cu, Mo and Zn and can be used as a predictor for PM10 elemental levels. This is not true for HD, as indoor particle sources prevail over the deposition of ambient PM10.
Ključne besede: household dust, road dust, particulate matter, PM10, pollution, Slovenia, steel mills, topsoil, traffic, urbanization
Objavljeno v RUNG: 02.12.2020; Ogledov: 4031; Prenosov: 189
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