THE AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EXPERIENCE OF MIGRATION IN THE LITERARY WORKS OF WOMEN WRITERS OF THE SLOVENIAN LITERARY POLYSYSTEMMegi Rožič
, 2016, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: People have travelled and migrated since the early periods of history and the phenomenon of migration, defined as “the movement of large numbers of people, birds or animals from one place to another” (Oxford Advanced Dictionary, 7th ed.) has a history of hundreds of years (Pourjafari, Vahidpour, 2014) and is by no means new. But the way of travelling, migrating and mobility in contemporary reality does have many specific aspects and recently it has been studied in new ways, with new concerns. The experience of migration in the contemporary world is a fundamental characteristic of human societies. “It is a system in which the circulation of people, sources and information follows multiple paths. The energy and barriers that alter the course or deflect the contemporary patterns of movement have both obvious and hidden features. While nothing is utterly random, the consequences of change are often far from predictable” (Papastergiadis, 2000: 1). This unpredictability and multidirectionality has led to changes in approaches to the study of migration in recent decades. In the last few decades the study of migration has increasingly been accompanied by a tendency to study it on the individual level − at the level of personal life stories (Milharčič Hladnik, 2007). These are also markedly expressed in the medium of literature.
The present dissertation presents literary oeuvres of seven women writers, who thematise the autobiographical experience of migration, it offers an individually, woman-centred experience and view of migration. In selected oeuvres personal views are expressed on that experience, different strategies of coping with life in new realities and regarding relationships in these environments. The thematisation of the experience of migration in selected oeuvres is also connected with a problematisation of other concepts: the concepts of belonging, borders, nation-state, culture and language. It is also vitally connected with the personal identity construction of the lyrical subjects and literary characters and also because of the autobiographical character of selected literary works of the literary artists themselves. The experience of migration in selected literary works leads to unique identity formations, which in themselves combine elements of different cultural backgrounds and traditions. In their literary works these selected women writers also shape their relationship toward time and space dimensions, tradition and interpersonal relationships through the experience of migration.
The experience of migration, the relocation of the subject and a change of the geographical area in selected oeuvres, does not only represent a change of the geographical position: it also allows a deviation from other rigid and seemingly fixed and unvarying patterns and virtual realities that accompany human life. Migration can also present an alienation effect from traditionalisms and determinants that define human lives. In the literary oeuvres of these selected women writers, migration is only in part tied to the traditional concepts related to migrants, with the loss of roots and rupture with the place of origin. In the selected literary oeuvres, migrants are rarely considered to be uprooted and unable to find their anchor or confidently start a new chapter in their lives in a new environment. Migration is mostly connected with the possibility of expanding the horizon of insights and perspectives of looking at life, with the acceptance of its complexities, ambiguities and incompleteness. Mostly, the experience of migration is seen as a new, creative option, which opens and examines the wide range of other issues and dilemmas. The condition of uprooted loss has traditionally negative connotations, but in the selected oeuvres vagueness and fluidity allow a real insight into the real, complex nature of life and human existence.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: The experience of migration, women writers, Maruša Krese, Ifigenija Zagoričnik Simonović, Brina Švigelj-Mérat − Brina Svit, Gabriela Babnik, Stanislava Chrobáková Repar, Erica Johnson Debeljak, Lidija Dimkovska, literary polysystem, nomadic entity, locational feminism, fluid identity, transnationalism, transculturalism
Published: 11.10.2016; Views: 3288; Downloads: 343
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“Rajši ‘stara devica’, nego nesrečna ženica”: podobe starejših žensk v delih zgodnjih slovenskih pisateljicKatja Mihurko Poniž
, unpublished conference contribution
Abstract: V starejši slovenski pripovedni prozi ženski lik le redko zavzema osrednje mesto. In še tedaj, kadar lahko govorimo o protagonistkah, so to mlada dekleta v vlogi ljubezenskih objektov. Kot matere so ženski liki postavljeni v ozadje, kjer velikokrat le nemo opazujejo dogajanje ali pa umrejo že na porodu, še preden vstopijo v jesen življenja. Starejše ženske so le redko prikazane kot dobrohotna bitja z življenjsko modrostjo, pogosto so izpostavljene posmehu ali pomilovanju, še posebno, če imajo status neporočene ženske. Dobrodušni, samski in veseljaški ostareli stric Dolef iz prvega slovenskega romana nima dopolnila v ženskem liku ne v času svojega nastanka ne leta kasneje. V referatu bom pregledno predstavila redke like starejših žensk pri slovenskih pisateljih iz obdobij realizma in moderne, poiskala njihove izvore v arhetipskih podobah v ljudskem slovstvu in slovanskih mitologijah (Jága bába in liki čarovnic) ter jih soočila z upodobitvami, ki so jih ustvarile pisateljice v raziskovanem obdobju.
Drugačne podobe starejših žensk namreč odkrivamo že v delih prvih slovenskih prozaistk. Luiza Pesjak v ciklu Žensko življenje in ženska ljubezen (1865) kot lirski subjekt vpelje babico, ki nagovarja svojo vnukinjo. Pavlina Pajk prikaže v pripovedi Roka in srce (1881) neporočeno žensko, ki je s svojim življenje zadovoljna in pri njej mlado dekle išče nasveta. Z raznolikimi podobami starejših žensk je slovensko književnost obogatila Zofka Kveder tako v kratki pripovedni prozi kot v romanu Hanka.
Pri raziskavi “ženskega” pogleda na starke in starejše ženske v dobi moderne se bom oprla na esej Die alte Frau (Starka) nemške feministke Hedwig Dohm, napisan leta 1903, ki razkriva modern pogled na vlogo starejših žensk v družbi na prelomu stoletja in izraža vero, da lahko emancipacija žensk s tem, ko odpravi prepričanje, da je obstoj ženske utemeljen samo v njenem spolu, torej v njeni reproduktivni funkciji, obrne na bolje tudi življenje žensk v tretjem življenjskem obdobju in tako ustvari njihovo novo, drugačno podobo.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: starka, Luiza Pesjak, Pavlina Pajk, Zofka Kveder
Published: 23.12.2016; Views: 1934; Downloads: 0
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Between Fact and Fiction: Zofka Kveder as a Feminist icon in the Writings of her ContemporariesKatja Mihurko Poniž
, published scientific conference contribution abstract
Abstract: In the article, the process of a development of a female writer Zofka Kveder (1878-1926) into a feminist icon of the early 20th century in Croatian, Czech, Slovenian, Serbian, and Austrian space will be discussed. Kveder’s oeuvre consists of prose, plays, literary and theatre reviews, as well as feminist writing in the Slovenian, Czech, Croatian, and German language. Due to her status of a feminist and cultural icon, she has never been an overlooked or forgotten author. However, although the Slovenian, Croatian, Czech, and Serbian literary histories have intensively dealt with her work and personality in the last two decades, the strategies of her “canonization” have never been properly reflected upon.
As a literary figure, Kveder first appears in the poems and sketches of her husband, Croatian decadent poet Vladimir Jelovšek, namely, in his collection Simfonije (Symphonies, 1900), dedicated to her (“To my Sonja”). In it, she appears as a nervous young woman who transforms in the relationship with her beloved man (the lyrical subject) from the inexperienced, frightened, childish sincere but warm person (who is physically and psychically totally subjected to the lyrical subject) into an emancipated young writer.
In the magazine Čas, Czech modernist writer J.S. Machar describes her as one of the most beautiful and pure souls. Kveder’s Czech period (1900-1906) inspired her friend Zdenka Hasková as well. She reflected upon their first meetings in the poem Věnovani (Dedication) in the collection Cestou (The Way, 1920). Slovenian author is idolized; her luminous personality and creative geniality are exposed. Háskova also wrote an article about their friendship (Jihoslovanské přátelství, Yugoslavian friendship) and published it in 1923. A lengthy biographical text was written by Slovenian feminist and Kveder’s friend Minka Govekar.
In the German speaking space, Austrian politician Martha Tausk, another one of Kveder’s close friends, wrote about her. In the collection of novellas Fernambuk und anderes (Fernambuk and the Other, 1930) she portrayed Kveder in a memorial text Die Geschichte einer Freundschaft (The Story of a Friendship). In all these works, Kveder’s positive character dominates. A completely different image is presented in the novel Bjegunci (Fugitives, 1933), written by Avgust Cesarec. In this novel with a key, Kveder is presented through the character of the protagonist’s mother and does not have a single positive trait.
Diverse representations and attempts of constructing Zofka Kveder as a cultural icon of the South-Slavic space open questions about strategies of glorifying the author’s role in different literary systems and concealing the truth about certain personality features, which were not in line with the positive image of Kveder as a feminist role model for younger generations. These strategies testify the positive aspirations and aporias of the early feminist icon- and role-model building. In the presentation, narrative and discursive strategies of writing a story about a female writer, a feminist, and a New Woman Zofka Kveder will be revealed.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Zofka Kveder, biografija, Vladimir Jelovšek, Martha Tausk, Zdenka Haskova, J.S. Machar, Minka Govekar, Avgust Cesarec
Published: 23.12.2016; Views: 2769; Downloads: 0
Fulltext (1,26 MB)
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