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Circadian rhythm of exhaled biomarkers in health and asthma
Stephen Fowler, Royston Goodacre, David Ray, Dave Singh, Iain White, John Blaikley, Andrew Loudon, Robert Maidstone, Max Wilkinson, Hannah Durrington, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Circadian rhythms control many biological processes in the body in both health and disease. Greater understanding of diurnal variability in disease related biomarkers is crucial for their application in clinical practice and biomarkers of circadian rhythm are required to facilitate further research into disturbed chronicity. To determine if fractional exhaled nitric oxide and breath volatile biomarkers vary rhythmically during the day in healthy and asthmatic individuals. Ten individuals with moderate, atopic asthma (on regular inhaled corticosteroids) and 10 healthy volunteers (all non-smokers) completed an overnight visit where their exhaled breath volatiles and forced exhaled nitric oxide levels were collected every 6 h. Breath volatiles were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, after trapping these volatiles on sorbent materials for thermal desorption. Nine breath volatiles (including acetone and isoprene) exhibit diurnal variation across all individuals. Furthermore the circadian pattern of several VOCs is altered in individuals with asthma and fractional exhaled nitric oxide is rhythmic in asthma but not in healthy controls. Markers of circadian rhythm can be identified in breath and may offer insight into circadian profiling to help treat disease. Additionally this work suggests that time of day must be controlled when designing future biomarker discovery studies. Further work is required with larger cohorts to validate and extend these findings.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: VOCs, breath, asthma, circadian
Published: 21.10.2019; Views: 658; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (479,14 KB)

A microbiome and metabolomic signature of phases of cutaneous healing identified by profiling sequential acute wounds of human skin: An exploratory study
Mohammed Ashrafi, Yun Xu, Howbeer Muhamadali, Iain R White, Maxim Wilkinson, Mohamed Baguneid, Roy Goodacre, Ardeshir Bayat, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Profiling skin microbiome and metabolome has been utilised to gain further insight into wound healing processes. The aims of this multi-part temporal study in 11 volunteers were to analytically profile the dynamic wound tissue and headspace metabolome and sequence microbial communities in acute wound healing at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and to investigate their relationship to wound healing, using non-invasive quantitative devices. Metabolites were obtained using tissue extraction, sorbent and polydimethylsiloxane patches and analysed using GCMS. PCA of wound tissue metabolome clearly separated time points with 10 metabolites of 346 being involved in separation. Analysis of variance-simultaneous component analysis identified a statistical difference between the wound headspace metabolome, sites (P = 0.0024) and time points (P<0.0001), with 10 out of the 129 metabolites measured involved with this separation between sites and time points. A reciprocal relationship between Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacterium spp. was observed at day 21 (P<0.05) with a statistical correlation between collagen and Propionibacterium (r = 0.417; P = 0.038) and Staphylococcus (r = -0.434; P = 0.03). Procrustes analysis showed a statistically significant similarity between wound headspace and tissue metabolome with non-invasive wound devices. This exploratory study demonstrates the temporal and dynamic nature of acute wound metabolome and microbiome presenting a novel class of biomarkers that correspond to wound healing, with further confirmatory studies now necessary.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: metabolomics, skin, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, wound healing
Published: 03.03.2020; Views: 558; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,45 MB)

Effects of high relative humidity and dry purging on VOCs obtained during breath sampling on common sorbent tubes
Maxim Wilkinson, Iain R White, Roy Goodacre, Tamara Nijsen, Stephen Fowler, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Offline breath analysis by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) requires the use of sorbent traps to concentrate and store volatile compounds. The selection of which sorbent to use and best practices for managing high relative humidity are important considerations to allow for reproducible, untargeted, biomarker discovery in water saturated breath samples. This work aims to assess three commonly used sorbent materials for their use in breath volatile sampling and determine how the high relative humidity inherent in such samples effects the capture of volatile compounds of interest. TenaxGR, TenaxTA/Carbograph1TD and TenaxTA/Carbograph5TD tubes were selected as they are the most commonly used sorbents in the breath sampling literature. The recovery of 29 compounds in a standard mix loaded using high humidity gas was tested for each sorbent and compared to loading in dry gas. Water retention and dry purge rates were determined for each sorbent for 500 ml and 1000 ml breath collections. Finally, breath samples were collected simultaneously on to each sorbent type using the ReCIVA and analysed by TD-GC-MS. All three sorbents exhibited acceptable reproducibility when loaded with the standard mix in dry gas (RSD < 10%). Loading the standard mix in humid gas led to reduced recovery of compounds based on their chemical properties. Dry purging performance for each sorbent material was assessed and was shown to be 1.14, 1.13 and 0.89 mg H2O min−1 for TenaxGR, TenaxTA/Carbograph1TD and TenaxTA/Carbograph5TD respectively when flushed with 50 ml min−1 of N2. A comparison of breath profiles on different sorbents showed differences in background artefacts (sulfur dioxide, cyclopenten-1-one and 3-nonene) and endogenous breath compounds (2-methyl-furan and furfural). This work demonstrates that high relative humidity during sampling reduces the ability of sorbent tubes to capture volatile compounds and could impact method detection limits during breath sampling. Sufficient water to impair accurate analysis was retained on all tubes. Minimal differences were observed between sorbent materials when used to sample breath, however, suggestions are provided for sorbent selection for future studies.
Found in: osebi
Keywords: VOCs, Breath sampling, ReCIVA
Published: 27.07.2020; Views: 333; Downloads: 13
.pdf Fulltext (1,18 MB)

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