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Real-time multi-marker measurement of organic compounds in human breath: Towards fingerprinting breath
Iain R White, Kerry A Willis, Christopher Whyte, Rebecca Cordell, Robert S Blake, Andrew J Wardlaw, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The prospects for exploiting proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) in medical diagnostics are illustrated through a series of case studies. Measurements of acetone levels in the breath of 68 healthy people are presented along with a longitudinal study of a single person over a period of 1 month. The median acetone concentration across the population was 484 ppbV with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.6, whilst the average GSD during the single subject longtitudinal study was 1.5. An additional case study is presented which highlights the potential of PTR-ToF-MS in pharmacokinetic studies, based upon the analysis of online breath samples of a person following the consumption of ethanol. PTR-ToF-MS comes into its own when information across a wide mass range is required, particularly when such information must be gathered in a short time during a breathing cycle. To illustrate this property, multicomponent breath analysis in a small study of cystic fibrosis patients is detailed, which provides tentative evidence that online PTR-ToF-MS analysis of tidal breath can distinguish between active infection and non-infected patients.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...for exploiting proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) in medical diagnostics are illustrated through...
Keywords: Volatile Organic Compounds, breath, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, Cystic Fibrosis
Published: 22.07.2019; Views: 828; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,37 MB)

Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale
Roberto Sommariva, Robert S Blake, Robert J Cuss, Rebecca L Cordell, Jon F Harrington, Iain R White, Paul S Monks, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic...
Keywords: Environmental impact, Hydraulic fracturing, Mass spectrometry
Published: 18.07.2019; Views: 670; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (2,47 MB)

TD/GC–MS analysis of volatile markers emitted from mono- and co-cultures of Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in artificial sputum
Craig Portsmouth, Pedro Povoa, Jan H Leopold, Pouline M P van Oort, Emili Diaz, Gemma Goma, Timothy Felton, Paul Dark, Alan Davie, Luis Coelho, Lieuwe D Bos, Marta Camprubi, Antonio Artigas, Jonathan Barnard-Smith, Waqar M Ahmed, Stephen J Fowler, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Weda Hans, Hugo knobel, Oluwasola Lawal, Iain R White, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be caused by one or more pathogens. Current methods for identifying these pathogenic microbes often require invasive sampling, and can be time consuming, due to the requirement for prolonged cultural enrichment along with selective and differential plating steps. This results in delays in diagnosis which in such critically ill patients can have potentially life-threatening consequences. Therefore, a non-invasive and timely diagnostic method is required. Detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath is proposed as an alternative method for identifying these pathogens and may distinguish between mono- and poly-microbial infections. Objectives: To investigate volatile metabolites that discriminate between bacterial mono- and co-cultures. Methods: VAP-associated pathogens Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cultured individually and together in artificial sputum medium for 24 h and their headspace was analysed for potential discriminatory VOCs by thermal desorption gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Of the 70 VOCs putatively identified, 23 were found to significantly increase during bacterial culture (i.e. likely to be released during metabolism) and 13 decreased (i.e. likely consumed during metabolism). The other VOCs showed no transformation (similar concentrations observed as in the medium). Bacteria-specific VOCs including 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol were observed in the headspace of axenic cultures of E. cloacae, and methyl 2-ethylhexanoate in the headspace of P. aeruginosa cultures which is novel to this investigation. Previously reported VOCs 1-undecene and pyrrole were also detected. The metabolites 2-methylbutyl acetate and methyl 2-methylbutyrate, which are reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity, were elevated in co-culture only. Conclusion: The observed VOCs were able to differentiate axenic and co-cultures. Validation of these markers in exhaled breath specimens could prove useful for timely pathogen identification and infection type diagnosis.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...discriminatory VOCs by thermal desorption gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Of the 70 VOCs putatively identified,...
Keywords: Bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Volatile organic compounds
Published: 18.07.2019; Views: 724; Downloads: 38
.pdf Fulltext (1,29 MB)

Capturing and Storing Exhaled Breath for Offline Analysis
Stephen J Fowler, Iain R White, 2019, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: In this chapter we will summarize and discuss methods for the capture and storage of exhaled breath, prior to offline (and indirect online) analysis. We will detail and compare methods currently in use, including their applications, key strengths, and limitations. In synthesizing the best features of each technique, we will propose an ideal standardized breath sampling solution, and give a personal vision on the next steps to be taken in this exciting area of breath research.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Keywords: Breath analysis, Breath sampling, Offline analysis, Thermal desorption, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Published: 22.07.2019; Views: 825; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (36,24 MB)

Hypoxia influences the cellular cross-talk of human dermal fibroblasts. A proteomic approach.
Naldini Antonella, Tiozzo Roberta, Sommer Pascal, Carraro Fabio, Annovi Giulia, Boraldi Federica, Quaglino Daniela, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The ability of cells to respond to changes in oxygen availability is critical for many physiological and pathological processes (i.e. development, aging, wound healing, hypertension, cancer). Changes in the protein profile of normal human dermal fibroblasts were investigated in vitro after 96 h in 5% CO2 and 21% O2 (pO2=140 mm Hg) or 2% O2 (pO2=14 mm Hg), these parameters representing a mild chronic hypoxic exposure which fibroblasts may undergo in vivo. The proliferation rate and the protein content were not significantly modified by hypoxia, whereas proteome analysis demonstrated changes in the expression of 56 proteins. Protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry. Data demonstrate that human fibroblasts respond to mild hypoxia increasing the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1a) and of the 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein. Other differentially expressed proteins appeared to be related to stress response, transcriptional control, metabolism, cytoskeleton, matrix remodelling and angiogenesis. Furthermore, some of them, like galectin 1, 40S ribosomal protein SA, N-myc-downstream regulated gene-1 protein, that have been described in the literature as possible cancer markers, significantly changed their expression also in normal hypoxic fibroblasts. Interestingly, a bovine fetuin was also identified that appeared significantly less internalised by hypoxic fibroblasts. In conclusion, results indicate that human dermal fibroblasts respond to an in vitro mild chronic hypoxic exposure by modifying a number of multifunctional proteins. Furthermore, data highlight the importance of stromal cells in modulating the intercellular cross-talk occurring in physiological and in pathologic conditions.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...proteins. Protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry. Data demonstrate that human fibroblasts respond to mild...
Keywords: Human fibroblast, Primary cell culture, Hypoxia, Connective tissue, Proteome, 2D gel electrophoresis, Mass-spectrometry
Published: 22.07.2019; Views: 853; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (919,07 KB)

Leja Goljat, 2019, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Environmental pollution is one of the greatest challenges that the world is facing today. Toxic compounds, such as pesticides, allergens, pharmaceuticals, toxins and heavy metals are widely present in the air, water and soil, and can affect the health of people and animals even in small quantities, as well as they may cause long- or short-term damage in plants [Hill, 1997]. Heavy metals (mercury, arsenic, cadmium…) are widely spread in the environment. They derive from a number of sources, including mining, industrial wastes and vehicle emissions [Tchounwou et al., 2012]. They are easily incorporated into biological molecules and exert their toxic effects by displacing essential metals of a lower binding power in biologically active molecules or by acting as noncompetitive inhibitors of enzymes, affecting neurological, reproductive, renal and hematological systems [Sunil D’Souza et al., 2003; Heavy-Metal Pollution, 2018]. Metals form countless compounds (e.g. metal complexes and organometallic compounds) which are essential for living organisms (vitamin B12, hemoglobin, chlorophyll) and/or have a wide range of applications in industry and other areas, including analytical chemistry. Because of the potential risk which toxic metals represent to the living organisms and also because of the importance of some essential metals, different analytical techniques and detection methods have been developed for studies of their occurrence, fate and concentration in the environment and in organisms. However, providing a required sensitivity for determination and speciation of different metals and their compounds, especially in small- volume samples is still a challenge. Therefore, general objectives of this dissertation were development of novel analytical methods for sensitive, reliable and fast determination of metal species, based on highly sensitive optothermal technique thermal lens spectrometry (TLS), which can be used as detection tool following colorimetric reaction of a selected metal ion or for direct detection of colored organometallic compounds. This dissertation is composed of the following chapters: introduction, research goals, theoretical background, results and discussion, conclusion and references. The core of this dissertation is presented in the fifth chapter (results and discussion), which is divided into three parts. They separately cover development of methods for determination of iron redox species, pyoverdine and Fe-pyoverdine complexes and mercury. Pyoverdine is a siderophore, excreted by a certain bacteria in order to scavenge iron in the environment and is closely related to the chemistry of iron in such biological systems. Therefore, the first two parts are closely related. Procedures for batch mode thermal lens microscopy (TLM), flow-injection thermal lens sprectrometry (FIA-TLS) and µFIA-TLM (flow injection and TLS detection in microspace) were developed for Fe(II) and Fe(III) determination, based on colorimetric reaction of Fe(II) with 1,10-Phenanthroline. All these procedures were focused on cloudwater examination with a tendency to minimize sample consumption but at the same time preserve low limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). TLM measurements with highly collimated probe beam were performed in a 100 μm optical path length cell (40 µL volume), which resulted in a considerably smaller sample volume requirement (500 µL in total) and consumption, as compared to UV-Vis spectrophotometry, which required at least 25 mL of sample due to large volume (almost 30 mL) of the 10 cm optical path-length sample cell. LODs for mode-mismatched TLM were 0.16 and 0.14 µM for Fe(II) and Fe(total) (sum of Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations), respectively, while LODs for UV-Vis spectrophotometry were 0.01 µM for both Fe(II) and Fe(total). By using the mode mismatched TLM we were able to detect concentrations corresponding to absorbances as low as 1.5 × 10-5, while the lowest absorbance detectable on the UV-Vis spectrophotometer corresponded to 1.1 × 10-3, despite the use of the 10 cm optical path-length cell. Another important step in the development of new methods for Fe(II) and Fe(III) determination was the use of TLS detection in FIA (FIA-TLS). By injecting 50 µL of the sample into the FIA-TLS system, cca. 10 times lower LODs were achieved (1 × 10-3 µM for Fe(II) and 8 × 10-4 µM for Fe(total)), as compared to the UV- Vis spectrophotometry. Nevertheless, the development of μFIA-TLM method, with on-line colorimetric reaction for Fe(II) and Fe(III) determination is considered as the most important achievement of this study. The results show that despite 100 times shorter optical path length and low sample consumption (3 µL of each sample/injection) compared to UV-Vis spectrophotometry, LODs for µFIA-TLM were 0.10 and 0.07 μM for Fe(II) and Fe(total) respectively, which is sufficiently for cloudwater analysis, since concentrations, lower than 0.1 μM are not expected [Parazols et al., 2006; Deguillaume et al., 2014]. Linear range for Fe(II) and Fe(III) determination by μFIA-TLM was between 0.1 and 70 µM. To test the accuracy of this method, artificial cloudwater was prepared, spiked with different amounts of Fe(II) and Fe(III) and analyzed for iron content by µFIA-TLM and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Good agreement was observed between the two methods. To ascertain the ruggedness of the method 7 (or more) replicate determinations at two different concentrations for both, Fe(II) and Fe(total) in artificial cloudwater were carried out on day 1 (replicates were measured instantly after fortification), day 2 and day 5. A student’s t-test (p=0.05) was applied to compare 3 sets of obtained data (day 1, day 2 and day 5) and showed that sets are not significantly different from each other. Considering very low sample volume requirement of µFIA-TLM, this should be the method of choice for determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in investigations of processes in cloudwater, where multiparameter analysis is desired (determination of other ions, ligands, microbial counts, etc.). When larger sample volumes are available, FIA-TLS can be used for accurate determination of iron species at lowest concentration levels. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied for separation and detection of pyoverdine (PVD), produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens 36b5, a bacterial strain isolated from the aqueous phase of clouds at the Puy de Dôme station (1465 m, France). Reversed-phase (RP) chromatography (RP-18 chromatographic column Hypersil gold), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) (ZIC®-Hilic column) and three different detection systems (diode-array (DAD), spectrofluorimetry (FLD) and TLS) were tested for their performance in separation and determination of pyoverdines and corresponding complexes of pyoverdine with iron (Fe(III)-PVDs). PVDs and Fe(III)-PVD complexes could not be separated and quantified by applying HILIC technique, therefore it was concluded, that HILIC is not suitable for HPLC-DAD and also not for HPLC-TLS, since the method should offer a simultaneous sensitive detection of free PVDs as well as Fe(III)-PVD complexes in a single chromatographic run. Since pyoverdine standards were available only as a mixture of several different forms of PVDs, whereby the exact composition was unknown, the quantification of each of the four major specie (two fluorescent PVDs and two nonfluorescent Fe(III)-PVDs) in the standard, which was obtained from Université Clermont Auvergne, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, was performed. When applying Hypersil gold column, a linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and absorbance of each component was observed in a concentration range 3–24 µg/mL, whereby LODs were estimated to be 0.03–0.04 µg/mL for each of the major PVD species (HPLC-DAD). Even though HPLC-FLD method provided cca. 100 times lower LODs, it is not the method of choice for determination of PVD species in cloudwater, because it does not allow detection of PVD complexes with Fe(III). When comparing HPLC-TLS and HPLC-DAD, LODs were 5 to 8 times lower in case of HPLC-TLS, which was a significant improvement. Furthermore, recoveries (89–111 %) at two concentration levels of four PVD species in two independent samples, showed good reliability of the method. Almost all mercury in uncontaminated drinking-water is thought to be in the form of Hg2+ [WHO, 2010]. Therefore, the method for Hg2+determination based on colorimetric reaction with triamterene, described originally by Al-Kady and Abdelmonem was further investigated in this study, as well as the possibilities of application of this reaction for Hg2+ determination by TLS. The stoichiometry of the complex formation was determined by the method of continuous variations and saturation experiment, suggesting formation of the complex with the formula Hg2-triamterene. The obtained value of the molar absorption coefficient was 9988 Lmol-1cm-1 at 403 nm, which significantly contradicts the existing data in literature, which reports the molar absorption coefficient of 5.32 × 104 Lmol-1cm-1 [Al-Kady and Abdelmonem, 2013]. Even though the spectrophotometric results were not encouraging for triamterene as colorimetric reagent for Hg2+ determination, it was further investigated for its performance in TLS system. Fe(II)-1,10-phenanthroline (ferroin) was used for comparison, because it was well studied for TLS applications previously. The results showed that Hg2-triamterene in solutions was degraded when it was exposed to the light of the excitation beam. Due to the lower molar absorptivity than reported in literature, fotodegradation and unfavorable complex stoichiometry, triamterene was not confirmed as a suitable colorimetric reagent for highly sensitive Hg2+ determination by TLS. In summary, this dissertation investigates alternative approaches for analysis of metal complexes and organometallic compounds in small-volume environmental water samples. Methods, which were developed in this research, could potentially serve as improvements of existing technologies, to facilitate analysis of such samples, by offering simple handling of samples and superior sensitivity over the UV-Vis spectrophotometry.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...on highly sensitive optothermal technique thermal lens spectrometry (TLS), which can be used as detection...
Keywords: thermal lens spectrometry, thermal lens microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, microfluidics, metal complexes, organometallic compounds, iron, pyoverdine, mercury
Published: 05.09.2019; Views: 954; Downloads: 49
.pdf Fulltext (3,65 MB)

Effect of bead size in Chelex-based resin hydrogels in DGT on detection of Fe redox species by beam deflection spectroscopy
Dorota Korte, Arne Bratkič, Hanna Budasheva, Mladen Franko, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films, Beam Deflection Spectrometry, iron species, resin hydrogels...
Keywords: Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films, Beam Deflection Spectrometry, iron species, resin hydrogels
Published: 25.09.2019; Views: 718; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,28 MB)

Determination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) in natural waters using passive DGT samplers and non-destructive BDS analysis
Arne Bratkič, Dorota Korte, Hanna Budasheva, Mladen Franko, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Beam Deflection Spectrometry, iron species, Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films, frequency...
Keywords: Beam Deflection Spectrometry, iron species, Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films, frequency scanning
Published: 30.09.2019; Views: 826; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (19,45 MB)

Uranium bearing dissolved organic matter in the porewaters of uranium contaminated lake sediments
Breda Novotnik, Wei Chen, R. Douglas Evans, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Uranium (U) mobility in the environment strongly depends on its oxidation state and the presence of complexing agents such as inorganic carbon, phosphates, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Despite the importance of DOM in U mobility, the exact mechanism is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to characterise sediment porewater DOM in two lakes in Ontario, Canada (Bow and Bentley Lakes) that were historically contaminated with U and propose possible composition of UO2-bearing DOM. Depth profiles of U concentrations in porewaters and total sediment digests reveal U levels of up to 1.3 mg L−1 in porewater and up to 0.8 mg−1 g in sediment. Depth profiles of U did not correlate with Fe, Mn, SO4 2−, or Eh profiles. Therefore, porewater DOM was analysed and taken into consideration as the primary source of U mobility. Porewater DOM in each sediment section (1 cm sections, 20 cm core length) was analysed by high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PCA analyses of porewater DOM mass spectra showed grouping and clear separation of DOM in sediment sections with elevated U concentrations in comparison to sections with background U concentrations. Several criteria were set to characterise UO2-bearing DOM and more than 70 different molecules were found. The vast majority of these UO2-DOM compounds fell in the category of carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules (H/C between 0.85 and 1.2 and O/C≤0.4) and had a mean value of m/z about 720.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...length) was analysed by high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PCA analyses of porewater DOM mass spectra...
Keywords: Uranium Lake sediments Porewater Disolved organic matter High resolution mass spectrometry
Published: 09.10.2019; Views: 736; Downloads: 0
.pdf Fulltext (1,48 MB)

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