Hydrogeological and speleological research of the spring cave Slatinski Izvor and its recharge are (Republic of Macedonia)Biljana Gichevski
, 2016, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: This thesis represents a comprehensive study, giving first extensive information on the hydrogeological and speleological characteristics of the spring cave Slatinski Izvor and its catchment area. The researched spring is located in the Poreče basin of West-Central Macedonia, in the river valley of Slatinska Reka. The wider area around the spring belongs to two tectonic units. The Slatinski Izvor spring is situated on the Pelagonian horst anticlinorium, which is composed of carbonate rocks. The second is the Western Macedonian zone, and it is composed of non-carbonate rocks. The spring represents a significant potential for water supply for the settlement Slatina. Prior to this research only some basic information about the karst aquifer in Precambrian dolomite marbles was available. Therefore, my goal was to ensure better understanding of the functioning of the karst system in the recharge area of the spring, assessment of its vulnerability to various pollution sources, as well as study of karst development of the area.
Because karst aquifers have unique hydrogeological characteristics and specific nature, they also require specifically adapted investigation methods. In order to reach the main goal, speleological investigations, hydrological methods, hydrochemical methods and tracer test were used. A monitoring network was combined with regular samplings for major and trace elements analysis, which enabled considerable advances in understanding the functioning of the karst system. The data from two-year period (December 2011 – November 2013) was compared and analyzed.
The controlling of the karst development in the study area mostly depends on the tectonic and geologic conditions. Incision of Slatinska Reka is the main controlling factor in cave development by lowering the base level of karst terrains. All investigated caves (Gorna Slatinska, Slatinska II, Ovčarska Peštera, Puralo, Slatinski Izvor) have “normal” epigenic karst development. Slatinski Izvor is the youngest cave. The Slatinski Izvor spring serves as a cave entrance for the same cave and, represents the outflow of groundwater from the karst system.
A conceptual model of the karst system of the study area was developed. The Slatinski Izvor spring has typical karst hydrological regime. The karst system is well developed by conduits and rains infiltrated into vadose zone flow rapidly towards the spring. The travel time of low mineralized water within the system corresponds well with the results from an artificial tracer test. Performed artificial tracer test confirmed that the Slatinski Izvor spring is recharged by allogenic stream. The dominant apparent flow velocity of 250 m/h, a single peak of the tracer breakthrough curve and more than 87% of tracer recovered indicate a rapid conduit flow and high vulnerability of the observed drinking water source. Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of physical and chemical parameters show that waters in the study area had different origin and were transmitted along different flow paths. The origin of the water of the Slatinski Izvor spring is from non-carbonate area, but the influence of mixed limestone-dolomite sequence in the carbonate area is significant. The results point out to short residence time of the water in the karst aquifer.
The anthropogenic impact in the study area is insignificant which is reflected in the good water quality. In order to preserve it, land surface zoning was performed in terms of groundwater and spring water vulnerability to pollution according to the hydrogeological research.
A comprehensive research with a combined use of various research tools presents an innovative approach and a new contribution to the Macedonian karstological science. Applied methods proved to be successful for to study of the karst system. Finally, the results of the study have clear applicative significance in terms of drinking water management.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...karst hydrology, cave, speleological investigation, hydrochemistry, tracer test, spring Slatinski Izvor...
Keywords: karst hydrology, cave, speleological investigation, hydrochemistry, tracer test, spring Slatinski Izvor
Published: 14.10.2016; Views: 28111; Downloads: 104
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