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Title:Hydrogeological and speleological research of the spring cave Slatinski Izvor and its recharge are (Republic of Macedonia)
Authors:Gichevski, Biljana (Author)
Petric, Metka (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Mirchovski, Vojo (Mentor) More about this mentor... New window
Files:.pdf Biljana_Gichevski.pdf (11,01 MB)
 
Language:English
Work type:Doctoral dissertation (mb31)
Tipology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:FPŠ - Graduate School
Abstract:This thesis represents a comprehensive study, giving first extensive information on the hydrogeological and speleological characteristics of the spring cave Slatinski Izvor and its catchment area. The researched spring is located in the Poreče basin of West-Central Macedonia, in the river valley of Slatinska Reka. The wider area around the spring belongs to two tectonic units. The Slatinski Izvor spring is situated on the Pelagonian horst anticlinorium, which is composed of carbonate rocks. The second is the Western Macedonian zone, and it is composed of non-carbonate rocks. The spring represents a significant potential for water supply for the settlement Slatina. Prior to this research only some basic information about the karst aquifer in Precambrian dolomite marbles was available. Therefore, my goal was to ensure better understanding of the functioning of the karst system in the recharge area of the spring, assessment of its vulnerability to various pollution sources, as well as study of karst development of the area. Because karst aquifers have unique hydrogeological characteristics and specific nature, they also require specifically adapted investigation methods. In order to reach the main goal, speleological investigations, hydrological methods, hydrochemical methods and tracer test were used. A monitoring network was combined with regular samplings for major and trace elements analysis, which enabled considerable advances in understanding the functioning of the karst system. The data from two-year period (December 2011 – November 2013) was compared and analyzed. The controlling of the karst development in the study area mostly depends on the tectonic and geologic conditions. Incision of Slatinska Reka is the main controlling factor in cave development by lowering the base level of karst terrains. All investigated caves (Gorna Slatinska, Slatinska II, Ovčarska Peštera, Puralo, Slatinski Izvor) have “normal” epigenic karst development. Slatinski Izvor is the youngest cave. The Slatinski Izvor spring serves as a cave entrance for the same cave and, represents the outflow of groundwater from the karst system. A conceptual model of the karst system of the study area was developed. The Slatinski Izvor spring has typical karst hydrological regime. The karst system is well developed by conduits and rains infiltrated into vadose zone flow rapidly towards the spring. The travel time of low mineralized water within the system corresponds well with the results from an artificial tracer test. Performed artificial tracer test confirmed that the Slatinski Izvor spring is recharged by allogenic stream. The dominant apparent flow velocity of 250 m/h, a single peak of the tracer breakthrough curve and more than 87% of tracer recovered indicate a rapid conduit flow and high vulnerability of the observed drinking water source. Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of physical and chemical parameters show that waters in the study area had different origin and were transmitted along different flow paths. The origin of the water of the Slatinski Izvor spring is from non-carbonate area, but the influence of mixed limestone-dolomite sequence in the carbonate area is significant. The results point out to short residence time of the water in the karst aquifer. The anthropogenic impact in the study area is insignificant which is reflected in the good water quality. In order to preserve it, land surface zoning was performed in terms of groundwater and spring water vulnerability to pollution according to the hydrogeological research. A comprehensive research with a combined use of various research tools presents an innovative approach and a new contribution to the Macedonian karstological science. Applied methods proved to be successful for to study of the karst system. Finally, the results of the study have clear applicative significance in terms of drinking water management.
Keywords:karst hydrology, cave, speleological investigation, hydrochemistry, tracer test, spring Slatinski Izvor
Year of publishing:2016
Source:Nova Gorica
COBISS_ID:4543995 Link is opened in a new window
URN:URN:SI:UNG:REP:PVX68CWA
Views:12296
Downloads:64
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Secondary language

Language:Undetermined
Title:Hidrogeološka in speleološka raziskava izvirne jame Slatinski izvor in njenega prispevnega zaledja (Republika Makedonija)
Abstract:Doktorska naloga predstavlja celovito študijo, v kateri so najprej podane obsežne informacije o hidrogeoloških in speleoloških značilnostih izvirne jame Slatinski izvor in njenega zaledja. Izvir se nahaja v bazenu Poreče v zahodnem delu osrednje Makedonije, v dolini Slatinske reke. Širše območje pripada dvema tektonskima enotama. Izvir Slatinski izvor se nahaja v Pelagonijskem horst – antiklinoriju, ki ga gradijo karbonatne kamnine. Druga je Zahodno makedonska masa, ki jo gradijo nekarbonatne kamnine. Izvir predstavlja velik potencial za oskrbo naselja Slatina s pitno vodo. Pred to raziskavo so bile dostopne le osnovne informacije o kraškem vodonosniku v predkambrijskem dolomitnem marmorju. Zato so bili moji cilji izboljšanje razumevanja delovanja kraškega sistema v zaledju izvira, ocena njegove ranljivosti na različne vire onesnaženja in razlaga razvoja krasa obravnavanega območja. Zaradi posebnih hidrogeoloških značilnosti in narave kraških vodonosnikov so bile za njihovo proučevanje razvite posebej prilagojene raziskovalne metode. Za dosego zastavljenih ciljev so bili na študijskem območju uporabljeni speleološke raziskave, hidrološke metode, hidrokemijske metode in sledilni poskusi. Vzporedno izvajanje zveznih meritev in rednega vzorčenja za analizo glavnih in slednih prvin je omogočilo občuten napredek v razumevanju delovanja kraškega sistema. Primerjani in analizirani so bili podatki za obdobje dveh let od decembra 2011 do novembra 2013. Razvoj krasa na proučevanem območju je odvisen predvsem od tektonskih in geoloških pogojev. Vrezovanje Slatinske reke je glavni faktor, ki določa razvoj jam z zniževanjem erozijske baze krasa. Vse proučevane jame (Gorna Slatinska, Slatinska II, Ovčarska Peštera, Puralo, Slatinski Izvor) imajo »normalni« epigenetski kraški razvoj. Najmlajša je jama Slatinski izvor. Izvir Slatinski izvor služi kot vhod v to jamo in predstavlja iztok iz kraškega sistema. Postavljen je bil konceptualni model kraškega sistema na obravnavanem območju. Slatinski izvor ima tipični kraški hidrološki režim. Kraški sistem je dobro razvit s kanalsko poroznostjo in padavine, ki vstopijo v vadozno cono, se hitro pretakajo proti izviru. Potovalni čas nizko mineralizirane vode znotraj sistema se dobro ujema z rezultati sledenja z umetnimi sledili. Izveden sledilni poskus z umetnimi sledili je potrdil, da se Slatinski izvor napaja alogeno s ponikalnico. Dominantna navidezna hitrost 250 m/h, samo en vrh krivulje pojava sledila in več kot 87 % povrnjenega sledila kažejo na hiter tok v kanalih in veliko ranljivost opazovanega vira pitne vode. Analiza prostorskih in časovnih sprememb fizikalnih in kemijskih parametrov je pokazala, da imajo vode na obravnavanem območju različen izvor in se pretakajo vzdolž različnih tokovnih poti. Izvor vode v izviru Slatinski izvor je na nekarbonatnem terenu, pomemben pa je tudi vpliv mešane apnenčevo-dolomitne cone v območju karbonatov. Rezultati kažejo na kratek zadrževalni čas vode v kraškem vodonosniku. Antropogeni vpliv v študijskem območju je nepomemben, kar se odraža v dobri kakovosti vode. Da bi jo ohranili tudi v prihodnje, je bilo območje glede na hidrogeološke razmere razdeljeno v različne cone ranljivosti na onesnaženje. Obsežna raziskava z vzporedno uporabo različnih raziskovalnih orodij pomeni inovativni pristop in nov prispevek k makedonskem krasoslovju. Uporabljene metode so se pokazale kot primerne za proučevanje kraškega sistema. Seveda pa imajo rezultati študije tudi pomembno uporabno vrednost v smislu upravljanja z vodnimi viri.
Keywords:kraška hidrologija, jama, speleološke raziskave, hidrokemija, sledilni poskus, izvir Slatinski izvor


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