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A multielement analysis of Cu induced changes in the mineral profilesof Cu sensitive and tolerant populations of Silene paradoxa L.
Sara Pignattelli, Ilaria Colzi, Antonella Buccianti, Ilenia Cattani, Gian Maria Beone, Henk Schat, Cristina Gonnelli, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: tThis work investigates the Cu induced changes in element profiles in contrasting ecotypes of Silene para-doxa L. A metallicolous copper tolerant population and a non-metallicolous sensitive population weregrown in hydroponics and exposed to different CuSO4treatments. Shoot and root concentrations of Ca,Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, S and Zn were evaluated through ICP-OES.Results indicated that increasing the environmental Cu concentration had a population dependenteffect on element profiles, shoot-to-root ratios and correlations among the elements. Generally, in thetolerant population Cu treatment induced a higher element accumulation in roots and had minimaleffects on the shoot element profile, thus resulting in a progressively decreasing shoot-to-root ratio foreach element. In the sensitive population element concentrations in root and shoot were much moreaffected and without a consistent trend. Copper treatment also affected the correlations between theelements, both in roots and shoots of the two populations, but more so in the sensitive population thanin the tolerant one. Thus, Cu exposure strongly disturbed element homeostasis in the sensitive population,but barely or not in the tolerant one, probably mainly due to a higher capacity to maintain proper rootfunctioning under Cu exposure in the latter. Differences in element profiles were also observed in theabsence of toxic Cu exposure. These differences may reflect divergent population-specific adaptations todifferential nutrient availability levels prevailing in the populations’ natural environments. There is noevidence of inherent side-effects of the Cu tolerance mechanism operating in the tolerant population.
Keywords: Mineral profile, Copper tolerance, Silene paradoxa, Compositional data analysis
Published in RUNG: 20.04.2020; Views: 3037; Downloads: 0
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4.
Under fungal attack on a metalliferous soil: ROS or not ROS? Insights from Silene paradoxa L. growing under copper stress
Cosimo Taiti, Elisabetta Giorni, Ilaria Colzi, Sara Pignattelli, Nadia Bazihizina, Antonella Buccianti, Simone Luti, Luigia Pazzagli, Stefano Mancuso, Cristina Gonnelli, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: We investigated how the adaptation to metalliferous environments can influence the plant response to biotic stress. In a metallicolous and a non-metallicolous population of Silene paradoxa the induction of oxidative stress and the production of callose and volatiles were evaluated in the presence of copper and of the PAMP fungal protein cerato-platanin, separately and in combination. Our results showed incompatibility between the ordinary ROS-mediated response to fungal attack and the acquired mechanisms of preventing oxidative stress in the tolerant population. A similar situation was also demonstrated by the sensitive population growing in the presence of copper but, in this case, with a lack of certain responses, such as callose production. In addition, in terms of the joint behaviour of emitted volatiles, multivariate statistics showed that not only did the populations respond differently to the presence of copper or biotic stress, but also that the biotic and abiotic stresses interacted in different ways in the two populations. Our results demonstrated that the same incompatibility of hyperaccumulators in ROS-mediated biotic stress signals also seemed to be exhibited by the excluder metallophyte, but without the advantage of being able to rely on the elemental defence for plant protection from natural enemies.
Keywords: Biotic interactions Callose Heavy metals Oxidative stress VOCs
Published in RUNG: 20.04.2020; Views: 3613; Downloads: 0
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2D animirani film skozi čas
Antonella D'Amico, 2019, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V prvem delu diplomske naloge podamo definicijo animiranega filma in na kratko opišemo, kako nastane animirani film. Omenimo tudi osnovne standarde animacije. Drugi del diplomske naloge je razdeljen na pet obdobij razvoja, na podlagi katerih opišemo zgodovino 2D animiranih filmov. V prvem obdobju predstavimo delovanje in nastanek naprav, ki jih na splošno imenujemo »optične igrače« in delujejo po principu persistence vida. Podrobneje opišemo »laterno magico«, »tavmatrop«, »fenakitoskop«, »zoetrop«, »slikofrc«, »praksinoskop« in »optično gledališče«. Pri vseh navedemo, kdo in kdaj jih je izumil ter opišemo njihovo delovanje. Drugo obdobje razvoja temelji na pionirjih animiranega filma. Podrobneje navedemo avtorje, kot so Emile Cohl, Winsor McCay, Pat Sulivan in Otto Messmer ter brata Fleischer. Obrazložimo njihova najbolj prepoznavna dela, ki so prispevala k napredku animiranega filma. V tretjem obdobju razvoja prikažemo razcvet animiranih filmov s pomočjo analize del treh pomembnejših ustvarjalcev, in sicer Walta Disneya, Texa Averyja in Osamuja Tezuke. V četrtem obdobju razvoja opišemo slog animacije pri animacijskih hišah UPA, Warner Bros ter Hana in Barbera na podlagi njihovih likov. Omenimo tudi dva samostojna umetnika eksperimentalne animacije Normana McLarena in Johna Whitneyja. V petem obdobju prikažemo tehniko 2D digitalne animacije ter prvi digitalni animirani seriji (The Simpsons in South Park) in prva digitalna animirana filma (The Rescuers Down Under in The Iron Giant). Tretji del diplomske naloge je v celoti namenjen analizi avtoričinega kratkega digitalnega 2D animiranega filma Bubbles s primeri dela v programih TVPaint in Adobe After Effects. Diplomska naloga je zastavljena kot študijsko besedilo za vse, ki jih zanima animirani film in želijo pridobiti podlago za širjenje svojega znanja na tem področju. Tako kot vse izrazne oblike sodobne kulture tudi animacijska kinematografija ostaja razdvojena med umetnostjo in industrijo, med umetniškim elementom ter ekonomskim vidikom komercialnega izkoriščevanja. Nobenega od teh dveh vidikov ni mogoče zanemariti, ker oba prispevata k opredelitvi, razširjanju in sprejemu umetniškega dela. Zaradi tega tudi namen diplomske naloge ni zgolj navajanja seznama imen in naslovov, ki ga narekuje le kronološka D’Amico, Antonella: 2D animirani film skozi čas. Dip.nal. Nova Gorica, AU/UNG, 2019 časovnica, temveč gre za besedilo, ki poskuša prikazati mrežo odnosov med posameznimi osebnostmi, filmi in zgodovinsko-kulturnim kontekstom.
Keywords: animacija, animirani filmi, optične igrače, slog, animirane serije, digitalna animacija
Published in RUNG: 25.11.2019; Views: 5069; Downloads: 171
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6.
Hypoxia influences the cellular cross-talk of human dermal fibroblasts. A proteomic approach.
Boraldi Federica, Annovi Giulia, Carraro Fabio, Naldini Antonella, Tiozzo Roberta, Sommer Pascal, Quaglino Daniela, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The ability of cells to respond to changes in oxygen availability is critical for many physiological and pathological processes (i.e. development, aging, wound healing, hypertension, cancer). Changes in the protein profile of normal human dermal fibroblasts were investigated in vitro after 96 h in 5% CO2 and 21% O2 (pO2=140 mm Hg) or 2% O2 (pO2=14 mm Hg), these parameters representing a mild chronic hypoxic exposure which fibroblasts may undergo in vivo. The proliferation rate and the protein content were not significantly modified by hypoxia, whereas proteome analysis demonstrated changes in the expression of 56 proteins. Protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry. Data demonstrate that human fibroblasts respond to mild hypoxia increasing the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1a) and of the 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein. Other differentially expressed proteins appeared to be related to stress response, transcriptional control, metabolism, cytoskeleton, matrix remodelling and angiogenesis. Furthermore, some of them, like galectin 1, 40S ribosomal protein SA, N-myc-downstream regulated gene-1 protein, that have been described in the literature as possible cancer markers, significantly changed their expression also in normal hypoxic fibroblasts. Interestingly, a bovine fetuin was also identified that appeared significantly less internalised by hypoxic fibroblasts. In conclusion, results indicate that human dermal fibroblasts respond to an in vitro mild chronic hypoxic exposure by modifying a number of multifunctional proteins. Furthermore, data highlight the importance of stromal cells in modulating the intercellular cross-talk occurring in physiological and in pathologic conditions.
Keywords: Human fibroblast, Primary cell culture, Hypoxia, Connective tissue, Proteome, 2D gel electrophoresis, Mass-spectrometry
Published in RUNG: 22.07.2019; Views: 3615; Downloads: 0
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7.
Cortisol, DHEA, and Sexual Steroid Concentrations in Fattening Pigs’ Hair
Cristina Bergamin, Antonella Comin, Mirco Corazzin, Massimo Faustini, Tanja Peric, Annalisa Scollo, Flaviana Gottardo, M. Montillo, Alberto Prandi, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility and reliability of using hair as a matrix to determine the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sexual steroid concentrations and the cortisol/DHEA ratio in fattening pigs. The results could be also used to plan future research to identify threshold values in order to set up strategies to control the allostatic load and increase the resilience of fattening pigs before slaughter. The study was conducted on 107 commercial crossbred rearing pigs. The hair samples were taken by shaving at the age of 36 weeks, and concentrations of the hormones were measured using a solid-phase microtiter radioimmunoassay. Females had significantly higher cortisol levels (p < 0.01), significantly lower DHEA concentrations (p < 0.05) and significantly higher cortisol/DHEA ratios (p < 0.01) than barrows. Progesterone was significantly higher in gilts than in barrows (p < 0.01). Testosterone and 17β-estradiol were significantly higher in barrows than in gilts (p < 0.05). If future research can produce threshold values for the different markers examined, the evaluation of animals under subclinical stress conditions will be possible.
Keywords: fattening pigs, hair, steroid hormones, allostatic load
Published in RUNG: 12.06.2019; Views: 3853; Downloads: 0
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8.
ASSESSMENT OF CORTISOL AND DHEA CONCENTRATIONS IN THE GRIFFON VULTURE (Gyps fulvus) FEATHERS TO EVALUATE ITS HEALTH CONDITION
Gian Nicola Frongia, Tanja Peric, Marco Muzzeddu, Fiammetta Berlinguer, Giovanni Leoni, Valentina Satta, Cristina Bergamin, Marcello Franchini, Antonella Comin, Salvatore Naitana, Alberto Prandi, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: During their life, birds face several challenges which can threaten the stability of physiological functions. These situations typically trigger a cascade of endocrine secretions involving the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and resulting in the release of both cortisol and corticosterone also in birds. The use of a non-invasive approach to collect samples of biological material derived from natural populations represents a greatly combination for an improvement of knowledge avoiding handling animals. Steroid concentrations in feathers are mainly acquired from the capillary around the follicle during the long period of feather grown reflecting their bloodstream concentrations. Accordingly, a chronic HPA axis activation could be assessed using molted feathers cortisol concentrations. Another hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is secreted by adrenals and it could be assessed in molted feathers. This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using feathers cortisol and DHEA concentrations to provide a retrospective assessment of the activity of the HPA axis in griffon vulture acquired for health monitoring purposes. For this, we introduced two groups of animals with a known health condition: one group composed by griffons that have experienced a long-term physiologically compromised period (PC group; n=8) and the other group composed by griffons physiologically not compromised (CTRL group; n=9). The feathers cortisol and DHEA analyses were carried out using RIA [1,2] adapted for feathers. The results revealed different feather hormone concentrations between the two groups of animals. The feathers cortisol had a median value higher in the PC group than in the CTRL group, with cortisol concentrations showing a central value 1.6 times higher in those animals that suffered a long-term physiological impairment. The PC group showed also (Kruskal- Wallis test) higher feather concentrations of DHEA (P=0.01) than the CTRL group. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to examine the associations between cortisol and DHEA, showing no correlation between cortisol and DHEA feather concentrations in the PC group (r=0.18, P=0.34) and a moderate positive correlation in the CTRL group (r=0.51, P=0.011). In conclusion, our study reveals that molted feathers can be an interesting way to evaluate the physiological status of wild animals by using a non-invasive approach. Our analyses reveal that in addition to cortisol also DHEA could be evaluated to better understand the relationships between these hormones and to determine the resilience condition of wild species.
Keywords: CORTISOL, DHEA, GRIFFON VULTURE, Gyps fulvus, FEATHER
Published in RUNG: 09.04.2019; Views: 3310; Downloads: 0
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9.
A NEW TOOL TO EVALUATE CORTISOL CONCENTRATIONS IN ANIMAL HAIR
Antonella Comin, Tanja Peric, Mara Colzani, Francesco De Vecchi, Cristina Bergamin, Alberto Prandi, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The study of cortisol in hair requires the use of a highly sensitive assay. To date, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been evaluated with different analytical methods as Radio Immune Assay (RIA), Enzyme Immunossay (EIA), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), ChemiLuminescent Immunoassay (CLIA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS) or Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (AlphaLISA) is an ELISA-like, nonradioactive technology first reported in 1994 [1]. This technology allows the quantitative detection of molecules of interest in a light-induced chemiluminescence immunoassay using a microplate without wash step. The aim of the study was to compare RIA with AlphaLISA method and examine the sensitivity in evaluating cortisol concentrations in animal hair of the Cortisol AlphaLISA kit (PerkinElmer, USA), originally suggested for the analysis of buffer and serum samples. The study has been carried out on 4 samples of calf, 4 samples of foal and 8 samples of sheep hair. After washing with isopropanol, two extracts were obtained from each hair sample. One extract has been evaluated for HCC by RIA as previously described [2,3]. The second extract has been reconstituted with the buffer provided by the Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit and HCC evaluated by the use of this commercially available kit. The preliminary results indicate that the Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit is capable to detect cortisol also in hair samples with high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 17 pg/ml. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were 4.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Cortisol concentrations ranged between 1.31 and 16.94 pg/mg, 6.30 and 57.65 pg/mg, and 2.16 and 45.08 in calf, foal and sheep hair, respectively. The HCC obtained by Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit and RIA showed a good correlation (r=0.79, p<0.01). Considering the possibility to use a low amount of extracted sample, its no-washing procedure and the performances showed, we can conclude that the Cortisol AlphaLISA Kit can be considered an excellent tool to evaluate cortisol concentrations also in hair derived from animal species.
Keywords: hair, cortisol, analyses, method, AlphaLISA, Amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay
Published in RUNG: 09.04.2019; Views: 3590; Downloads: 0
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10.
Hair dehydroepiandrosterone in newborn beef calves from birth up to 10 months of age
Monica Probo, Tanja Peric, Massimo Faustini, Alberto Prandi, Antonella Comin, 2018, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Although steroidogenesis in maternal, placental and fetal compartments is interdependent, the maternal and fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes represent separate biological systems, with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) recognized as the main fetal steroid. Fetal steroids are likely to influence development and have long-term effects on HPA function. Hair analysis represents a promising methodological approach for the non-invasive measurement of steroids, allowing for a retrospective analysis of the total exposure to steroids over time, and avoiding the influence of acute events or circadian fluctuations (Schury et al. 2017, BMC Psychiatry 17:213). Hair coat DHEA (hcD) concentrations have been investigated in cows (Peric et al. 2017, Livestock Sci 202:39–43), but no studies have been performed on newborn calves. Hair samples of 12 beef calves (7 males, 5 females) were collected by shaving at calving (T0) and monthly up to 10 months of age (T1-T10), only on the re-growth area. Hair DHEA was analyzed by RIA2. Statistical analysis revealed that hcD concentrations in calves were influenced by age, with higher levels at T1 and T2 compared to the other samples (p < 0.05). HcD levels were not influenced by newborn gender, birth weight and Apgar score. These data demonstrate that DHEA is quantifiable in the hair coat of newborn calves, and that hcD levels are influenced by the age of calves. The higher accumulation of DHEA was detected from birth to 2 months of age, suggesting that DHEA continues to be secreted by the newborn calf also beyond birth and could be involved in the events occurring during the first months of age.
Keywords: hair, dehydroepiandrosterone, cattle, calf
Published in RUNG: 09.04.2019; Views: 3340; Downloads: 0
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