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1.
Fluorescent covalent organic frameworks : promising bioimaging materials
Chimatahalli Santhakumar Karthik, Tina Škorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Fluorescent covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as promising candidates for imaging living cells due to their unique properties and adjustable fluorescence. In this mini-review, we provide an overview of recent advancements in fluorescent COFs for bioimaging applications. We discuss the strategies used to design COFs with desirable properties such as high photostability, excellent biocompatibility, and pH sensitivity. Additionally, we explore the various ways in which fluorescent COFs are utilized in bioimaging, including cellular imaging, targeting specific organelles, and tracking biomolecules. We delve into their applications in sensing intracellular pH, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and specific biomarkers. Furthermore, we examine how functionalization techniques enhance the targeting and imaging capabilities of fluorescent COFs. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects in the field of fluorescent COFs for bioimaging in living cells, urging further research in this exciting area.
Keywords: covalent organic frameworks, fluorescent materials, imaging, bioimaging, biosensors
Published in RUNG: 05.03.2024; Views: 293; Downloads: 3
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2.
Crystallizing covalent organic frameworks from metal organic framework through chemical induced-phase engineering
Abdul Khayum Mohammed, Safa Gaber, Jesus Raya, Tina Škorjanc, Nada Elmerhi, Sasi Stephen, Pilar Pena-Sánchez, Felipe Gándara, Steven Hinder, Mark A. Baker, Kyriaki Polychronopoulou, Dinesh Shetty, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The ordered porous frameworks like MOFs and COFs are generally constructed using the monomers through distinctive metal-coordinated and covalent linkages. Meanwhile, the inter-structural transition between each class of these porous materials is an under-explored research area. However, such altered frameworks are expected to have exciting features compared to their pristine versions. Herein, we have demonstrated a chemical-induction phase-engineering strategy to transform a two dimensional conjugated Cu-based SA-MOF (Cu-Tp) into 2D-COFs (Cu-TpCOFs). The structural phase transition offered in-situ pore size engineering from 1.1 nm to 1.5–2.0 nm. Moreover, the Cu-TpCOFs showed uniform and low percentage-doped (~ 1–1.5%) metal distribution and improved crystallinity, porosity, and stability compared to the parent Cu-Tp MOF. The construction of a framework from another framework with new linkages opens interesting opportunities for phase-engineering.
Keywords: metal organic framework, covalent organic framework, phase engineering, chemical transformation, porous materials
Published in RUNG: 10.11.2023; Views: 658; Downloads: 5
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3.
In vitro tumor hypoxia imaging with fluorescent covalent organic frameworks
Tina Skorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, Damjan Makuc, Gregor Mali, Martina Bergant Marušič, Matjaž Valant, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Hypoxia refers to a condition where cells and tissues experience low, inadequate levels of O2. While healthy tissues are typically supplied with sufficient O2 (normoxia), cancerous tissues commonly face hypoxia due to the tumor’s extraordinarily high demand for oxygen. Various fluorescent small-molecule probes have been designed for selective detection of hypoxia in living cells, but few nanomaterials have been investigated for this type of bioimaging. Herein, we prepare a fluorescent covalent organic framework (COF) with β-ketoenamine linkages and post-synthetically modify it to conjugate hypoxia-sensitive nitroimidazole moieties into its pores (NI-COF). Stacks of sheets in NI-COF observed under electron microscopy were exfoliated by ultrasonication, and dynamic light scattering measurements confirmed particle size of less than 200 nm. Thus-prepared material exhibited good stability in physiological conditions and low cytotoxicity in in vitro experiments. NI-COF also showed useful fluorescence properties with an emission peak at 490 nm (λex = 420 nm) at both neutral and mildly acidic pH levels that are characteristic of tumor tissues. Encouraged by the favorable properties of the material, we incubated HeLa cells pre-treated in either hypoxic or normoxic conditions with NI-COF. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated that the material was preferentially taken up by hypoxic cells, which showed higher fluorescence signal in their interior than cells cultured under normoxia conditions. It is anticipated that this study will stimulate further developments of COFs for imaging various biological conditions.
Keywords: hypoxia, fluorescence, covalent organic frameworks, imaging, tumor cells
Published in RUNG: 19.09.2023; Views: 753; Downloads: 3
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4.
Covalent organic frameworks for fluorescent imaging of hypoxia
Tina Škorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, Gregor Mali, Damjan Makuc, Martina Bergant Marušič, Matjaž Valant, 2023, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: hypoxia, covalent organic frameworks, imaging, fluorescence, post-synthetic modification
Published in RUNG: 06.06.2023; Views: 999; Downloads: 2
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Porous polycalix[n]arenes as environmental pollutant removers
Salma Abubakar, Tina Škorjanc, Dinesh Shetty, Ali Trabolsi, 2021, review article

Abstract: A new and innovative class of calixarene-based polymers emerged as adsorbents for a variety of compounds and ions in solution and vapor media. These materials take advantage of the modifiable rims and hydrophobic cavities of the calixarene monomers, in addition to the porous nature of the polymeric matrix. With main-chain calixarenes’ function as supramolecular hosts and the polymers’ high surface areas, polycalixarenes can effectively encapsulate target analytes. This feature is particularly useful for environmental remediation as dangerous and toxic molecules reversibly bind to the macrocyclic cavity, which facilitates their removal and enables repeated use of the polymeric sorbent. This Spotlight touches on the unique characteristics of the calixarene monomers and discusses the synthetic methods of our reported calixarene-based porous polymers, including Sonogashira–Hagihara coupling, and diazo and imine bond formation. It then discusses the promising applications of these materials in adsorbing dyes, micropollutants, iodine, mercury, paraquat, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from water. In most cases, these reports cover materials that outperform others in terms of recyclability, rates of adsorption, or uptake capacities of specific pollutants. Finally, this Spotlight addresses the current challenges and future aspects of utilizing porous polymers in pollution treatment.
Keywords: calixarene, polycalixarenes, porous polymers, pollutant removal, water purification
Published in RUNG: 09.04.2021; Views: 2196; Downloads: 0
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