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1.
"I've always spoke like this, you see" : preterite-to-participle leveling in American and British Englishes
Alicia Chatten, Kimberley Baxter, Erwanne Mas, Jailyn Peña, Guy Tabachnick, Daniel Duncan, Laurel MacKenzie, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Some English verbs use distinct forms for the preterite (i.e., simple past; e.g., I broke the door) and the past participle (e.g., I’ve broken the door). These verbs may variably show use of the preterite form in place of the participle (e.g., I’ve broke the door), which the authors call participle leveling. This article contributes the first detailed variationist study of participle leveling by investigating the phenomenon in perfect constructions using data collected from three corpora of conversational speech: two of American English and one of British English. A striking degree of similarity is found between the three corpora in both the linguistic and the extralinguistic constraints on variation. Constraints on participle leveling include tense of the perfect construction, verb frequency, and phonological similarity between preterite and participle forms. The variable is stable in real time and socially stratified. The article relates the findings to theoretical linguistic treatments of the variation and to questions of its origin and spread in Englishes transatlantically.
Keywords: morphological variation, analogical leveling, American English, British English
Published in RUNG: 08.04.2024; Views: 394; Downloads: 2
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2.
O smeri naslanjanja slovenskih naslonk : predavanje v okviru Lingvističnega krožka Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani, 18. 3. 2024, Ljubljana
Guy Tabachnick, Franc Marušič, Rok Žaucer, 2024, other performed works

Abstract: Stavčne naslonke naj bi se v slovenščini privzeto naslanjale na predhodno besedo kot enklitike, obstaja pa glede tega v jezikoslovni literaturi tudi nasprotno mnenje. To razpravo smo želeli osvetliti z eksperimentalnimi podatki. V poskusu smo v stavek, prebran z nevtralno intonacijo in brez očitnih premorov, dodali kratek pisk na različna mesta, sodelujoči pa so morali povedati, kje dodani pisk slišijo. Piska večinoma niso slišali, kjer je bil predvajan, temveč so ga zaznavali na prozodičnih mejah, še posebej na večjih prozodičnih mejah. V običajnih stavkih brez večjih prozodičnih mej so pisk pogosteje zaznali pred naslonskim nizom kot za njim, kar pomeni, da govorci občutijo obstoj večje prozodične meje pred naslonkami kot za naslonkami in da se naslonke očitno privzeto navezujejo kot proklitike na naslednjo besedo in ne kot enklitike na predhodno besedo.
Keywords: naslonke, poskus, prozodične meje, skladnja, slovenščina
Published in RUNG: 29.03.2024; Views: 397; Downloads: 1
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3.
Czech speakers learn and apply morphological dependencies : lecture at the University of Nova Gorica, Jezik & Linguistics Colloquia, Nova Gorica, 23. 11. 2023
Guy Tabachnick, 2023, other performed works

Abstract: Theories of morphology must account for lexicalized variation: lexical items that differ unpredictably in their inflection must be memorized individually and differ in their stored representation. When tested on such cases, adult speakers usually follow the “law of frequency matching” (Hayes et al. 2009), extending gradient phonological patterns from the lexicon. In this talk, I present results from two wug tests showing that Czech speakers likewise extend gradient morphological patterns from the lexicon: that is, they productively apply correlations between inflected forms of the same word. I handle lexicalized variation using diacritic features marking lexical entries and propose that Czech speakers have learned a gradient cooccurrence relation between diacritic features, extending the sublexicon model of Gouskova et al. (2015). This approach accounts for phonological and morphological patterns with a unified mechanism. This approach provides an account of morphological dependencies in generative grammar compatible with a piece-based, syntactic theory like Distributed Morphology, responding to Ackerman and Malouf (2013) and others who criticize such theories for being unable to account for these morphological correlations.
Keywords: morphology, psycholinguistics, inflection classes, nonce word study, frequency matching, morphological dependencies, Czech
Published in RUNG: 05.03.2024; Views: 476; Downloads: 1
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4.
Speakers apply morphological dependencies in the inflection of novel forms : lecture at the University of Connecticut, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Department of Linguistics, Ling Lunch, 18. 4. 2023
Guy Tabachnick, 2023, invited lecture at foreign university

Abstract: Theories of morphology must account for lexicalized variation: lexical items that differ unpredictably in their inflection must be memorized individually and differ in their stored representation. When tested on such cases, adult speakers usually follow the “law of frequency matching” (Hayes et al. 2009), extending gradient phonological patterns from the lexicon. In this talk, I present results from two wug tests showing that Hungarian and Czech speakers likewise extend gradient morphological patterns from the lexicon: that is, they productively imply correlations between inflected forms of the same word. I handle lexicalized variation using diacritic features marking lexical entries and propose that Hungarian and Czech speakers have learned a gradient cooccurrence relation between diacritic features, extending the sublexicon model of Gouskova et al. (2015). This approach also allows for a flexible analysis of traditional inflection classes (in languages like Russian) as emergent clusters of frequently cooccurring features.
Keywords: morphology, psycholinguistics, inflection classes, nonce word study, frequency matching, morphological dependencies, Hungarian, Czech
Published in RUNG: 05.03.2024; Views: 404; Downloads: 1
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5.
Speakers apply morphological dependencies in the inflection of novel forms : lecture at the Linguistic Society of America 97th Annual Meeting, January 6, 2023
Guy Tabachnick, 2023, unpublished conference contribution

Abstract: Since Berko (1958), nonce word studies have shown that speakers exhibit morphological productivity: they can create morphologically complex forms of unfamiliar lexical items. Speakers are known to use a word’s phonology in morphological productivity (e.g. Bybee, 2001; Albright and Hayes, 2003; Hayes and Londe, 2006). Using a novel nonce word paradigm in Hungarian, I show that speakers can also be sensitive to a word’s morphological behavior: specifically, Hungarian speakers take a novel word’s plural allomorph into account in selecting its possessive, reflecting the distribution of plural and possessive allomorphs in the lexicon. This experimental paradigm thus sheds light on how speakers use morphological dependencies: correlations between members of an inflectional paradigm (see Ackerman and Malouf, 2013).
Keywords: Morphology, Psycholinguistics, nonce word study, productivity, morphological dependencies, Hungarian
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 422; Downloads: 2
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6.
Flipping the on/off switch: change in progress in the prepositional complements of verbs like "base" : lecture at the American Dialect Society, Annual Conference, January 8, 2023
Guy Tabachnick, Laurel MacKenzie, 2023, unpublished conference contribution

Abstract: Traditionally, verbs like base, survive, and capitalize have combined with the preposition on to express a meaning of derivation (based on). Since 2000, the use of off (of) in this construction has rapidly risen in prevalence and acceptability (Curzan, 2013; Behrens, 2014; Janda, 2020). We confirm the relative increase of off in this construction in a corpus of posts from the discussion website Reddit and in two other corpora in both real and apparent time, and find verb-specific effects on rate of off usage.
Keywords: Morpho-Syntactic Variation, prepositions, Reddit corpus, American English
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 411; Downloads: 3
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7.
“I've always spoke(n) like this, you see” : participle leveling in three corpora of English.
Alicia Chatten, Guy Tabachnick, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: Some English verbs use distinct forms for the preterite (1) and the past participle (2). These verbs may variably show paradigm leveling, where the preterite form is used in place of the participle (3). (1) I broke the door. (2) I’ve broken the door. (3) I’ve broke the door. We contribute the first detailed variationist study of participle leveling by investigating the phenomenon in three corpora: Switchboard, a corpus of 10-minute telephone conversations between American English speakers (Godfrey & Holliman 1997); the Philadelphia Neighborhood Corpus, a corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with Philadelphians (Labov & Rosenfelder 2011); and the Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English, a corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with residents of the North East of England (Corrigan et al. 2012). We find a striking degree of similarity between the three corpora in the constraints on variation. The general picture is of socially-evaluated variation affected by both syntactic and paradigmatic factors.
Keywords: morphosyntax, morphological variation, analogical leveling, American English, British English
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 415; Downloads: 2
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8.
A sublexicon approach to the paradigm cell filling problem : lecture at the 5th American International Morphology Meeting, 29. 8. 2021, on-line
Guy Tabachnick, 2001, unpublished conference contribution

Abstract: How do learners figure out an inflected form of a word when they haven’t seen it before and a language allows for more than one option? In some cases, learners can make generalizations about a word’s phonological form (e.g. English verbs ending in [ɪŋ] like sting often have past tenses with [ʌŋ]). In others, as Ackerman et al. (2009) and Ackerman and Malouf (2013) show, knowing some of a word’s inflected forms often allows one to efficiently solve the Paradigm Cell Filling Problem—that is, predicting an additional form. They argue for a morphological model in which the paradigm is a fundamental unit of structure. I propose a model for how learners may use some forms of a word to predict others outside a paradigm-based formal system. In particular, I extend the sublexicon model (Gouskova et al., 2015; Becker and Gouskova, 2016), used for capturing phonological generalizations, to include dependencies between morphophonological behaviors. This can account for Hungarian possessive allomorphy, in which a noun’s choice of possessive suffix can be substantially, but not entirely, predicted both by its phonological characteristics and its membership in a certain morphological class.
Keywords: lexically specified allomorphy, rules of exponence, Paradigm Cell Filling Problem, sublexicons, morphological learning
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 400; Downloads: 2
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9.
Paradigm uniformity in Czech prefix vocalization
Guy Tabachnick, 2019, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Abstract: The nature of inflectional paradigms in morphology is controversial, with some (e.g. Bobaljik, 2008) arguing that some supposed paradigmatic effects are instead due to morphosyntactic properties. I look at Czech prefix vocalization, a phenomenon in which consonant-final prefixes sometimes require a vowel (in Czech, this is always [ɛ]) at their end when attaching to a root. I analyze it as morphophonologically driven epenthesis and show that it overapplies across an inflectional paradigm, arguing that the paradigm is a meaningful linguistic unit. I account for prefix vocalization with Optimal Paradigms (McCarthy, 2005).
Keywords: Czech, prefix vocalization, paradigm uniformity, verbal morphology, allomorphy
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 402; Downloads: 2
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10.
Morphological dependencies : a dissertation
Guy Tabachnick, 2023, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This dissertation investigates morphological dependencies: correlations between two lexically specific patterns, such as selection of inflectional affixes. Previous work has established that such correlations exist in the lexicon of morphologically rich languages (Ackerman et al., 2009; Wurzel, 1989), but has not systematically tested whether speakers productively extend these patterns to novel words. I present a series of corpus and nonce word studies—in Hungarian, Czech, and Russian—testing whether speakers vary their selection of suffixed forms of novel words based on the forms of that word that are presented to them. In all three cases, speakers vary their responses in accordance with the provided stimuli, demonstrating that they have learned and productively apply morphological dependencies from the lexicon. I present a theoretical account of morphological dependencies that can account for my experimental results, based on the sublexicon model of phonological learning (Allen & Becker, 2015; Becker & Gouskova, 2016; Gouskova et al., 2015). In this model, speakers index lexically specific behavior with diacritic features attached to underlying forms in lexical entries, and learn generalizations over sublexicons defined as words that share a feature. These generalizations are stored as constraints in phonotactic grammars for each sublexicon, enabling speakers to learn phonological and morphological dependencies predicting words that pattern together. This model provides a unified treatment of morphological dependencies and generalizations that are phonological in nature. My studies show a wide range of learned effects, not limited to those that follow an organizational principle like paradigm uniformity. The sublexicon model assumes that speakers can learn arbitrary generalizations without restrictions, giving it needed flexibility over more restrictive models which rely on notions of morphophonological naturalness.
Keywords: inflectional affixes, nonce word study, lexical productivity, morphological dependencies, diacritic features, dissertations
Published in RUNG: 04.03.2024; Views: 455; Downloads: 8
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