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1.
Source apportionment study on particulate air pollution in two high-altitude Bolivian cities: La Paz and El Alto
Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel R. Moreno, Noemí Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. Located between 3200 and 4050 m a.s.l. (above sea level), these cities are home to a burgeoning population of approximately 1.8 million residents. The air quality in this conurbation is heavily influenced by urbanization; however, there are no comprehensive studies evaluating the sources of air pollution and their health impacts. Despite their proximity, the substantial variation in altitude, topography, and socioeconomic activities between La Paz and El Alto result in distinct sources, dynamics, and transport of particulate matter (PM). In this investigation, PM10 samples were collected at two urban background stations located in La Paz and El Alto between April 2016 and June 2017. The samples were later analyzed for a wide range of chemical species including numerous source tracers (OC, EC, water-soluble ions, sugar anhydrides, sugar alcohols, trace metals, and molecular organic species). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF v.5.0) receptor model was employed for the source apportionment of PM10. This is one of the first source apportionment studies in South America that incorporates an extensive suite of organic markers, including levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and alkanes, alongside inorganic species. The multisite PMF resolved 11 main sources of PM. The largest annual contribution to PM10 came from the following two major sources: the ensemble of the four vehicular emissions sources (exhaust and non-exhaust), accountable for 35 % and 25 % of the measured PM in La Paz and El Alto, respectively; and dust, which contributed 20 % and 32 % to the total PM mass. Secondary aerosols accounted for 22 % (24 %) in La Paz (El Alto). Agricultural smoke resulting from biomass burning in the Bolivian lowlands and neighboring countries contributed to 9 % (8 %) of the total PM10 mass annually, increasing to 17 % (13 %) between August–October. Primary biogenic emissions were responsible for 13 % (7 %) of the measured PM10 mass. Additionally, a profile associated with open waste burning occurring from May to August was identified. Although this source contributed only to 2 % (5 %) of the total PM10 mass, it constitutes the second largest source of PAHs, which are compounds potentially hazardous to human health. Our analysis additionally resolved two different traffic-related factors, a lubricant source (not frequently identified), and a non-exhaust emissions source. Overall, this study demonstrates that PM10 concentrations in La Paz and El Alto region are predominantly influenced by a limited number of local sources. In conclusion, to improve air quality in both cities, efforts should primarily focus on addressing dust, traffic emissions, open waste burning, and biomass burning.
Keywords: source apportionment, particular air pollution, high altitude, positive matrix factorization, PMF
Published in RUNG: 15.09.2023; Views: 859; Downloads: 5
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2.
Equal abundance of summertime natural and wintertime anthropogenic Arctic organic aerosols
Vaios Moschos, Katja Dzepina, Deepika Bhattu, Houssni Lamkaddam, Roberto Casotto, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Pragati Rai, Wenche Aas, Silvia Becagli, Giulia Calzolai, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Claire E. Moffett, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Mirko Severi, Sangeeta Sharma, Henrik Skov, Mika Vestenius, Wendy Zhang, Hannele Hakola, Heidi Hellén, Lin Huang, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andreas Massling, Jakob K. Nøjgaard, Tuuka Petäjä, Olga Popovicheva, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Rita Traversi, Karl Espen Yttri, Julia Schmale, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Aerosols play an important yet uncertain role in modulating the radiation balance of the sensitive Arctic atmosphere. Organic aerosol is one of the most abundant, yet least understood, fractions of the Arctic aerosol mass. Here we use data from eight observatories that represent the entire Arctic to reveal the annual cycles in anthropogenic and biogenic sources of organic aerosol. We show that during winter, the organic aerosol in the Arctic is dominated by anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Eurasia, which consist of both direct combustion emissions and long-range transported, aged pollution. In summer, the decreasing anthropogenic pollution is replaced by natural emissions. These include marine secondary, biogenic secondary and primary biological emissions, which have the potential to be important to Arctic climate by modifying the cloud condensation nuclei properties and acting as ice-nucleating particles. Their source strength or atmospheric processing is sensitive to nutrient availability, solar radiation, temperature and snow cover. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the current pan-Arctic organic aerosol, which can be used to support modelling efforts that aim to quantify the climate impacts of emissions in this sensitive region.
Keywords: Arctic, Organic aerosols, Emission sources, Climate change
Published in RUNG: 01.03.2022; Views: 1655; Downloads: 0
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3.
The new instrument using a TC–BC (total carbon–black carbon) method for the online measurement of carbonaceous aerosols
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Anastasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Krajnc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, Griša Močnik, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We present a newly developed total carbon analyzer (TCA08) and a method for online speciation of carbonaceous aerosol with a high time resolution. The total carbon content is determined by flash heating of a sample collected on a quartz-fiber filter with a time base between 20 min and 24 h. The limit of detection is approximately 0.3 µg C, which corresponds to a concentration of 0.3 µg C m−3 at a sample flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 and a 1 h sampling time base. The concentration of particulate equivalent organic carbon (OC) is determined by subtracting black carbon concentration, concurrently measured optically by an Aethalometer®, from the total carbon concentration measured by the TCA08. The combination of the TCA08 and Aethalometer (AE33) is an easy-to-deploy and low-maintenance continuous measurement technique for the high-time-resolution determination of equivalent organic and elemental carbon (EC) in different particulate matter size fractions, which avoids pyrolytic correction and the need for high-purity compressed gases. The performance of this online method relative to the standardized off-line thermo-optical OC–EC method and respective instruments was evaluated during a winter field campaign at an urban background location in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The organic-matter-to-organic-carbon ratio obtained from the comparison with an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was OM/OC=1.8, in the expected range.
Keywords: total carbon, aeroosl, black carbon, carbonaceous matter
Published in RUNG: 17.08.2020; Views: 2982; Downloads: 76
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4.
Substantial brown carbon emissions from wintertime residential wood burning over France
Yunjiang Zhang, Alexandre Albinet, Jean-Eudes Petit, Véronique Jacob, Florie Chevrier, Gregory Gille, Sabrina Pontet, Eve Chrétien, Marta Dominik-Sègue, Gilles Levigoureux, Griša Močnik, Valérie Gros, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Olivier Favez, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Brown carbon (BrC) is known to absorb light at subvisible wavelengths but its optical properties and sources are still poorly documented, leading to large uncertainties in climate studies. Here, we show its major wintertime contribution to total aerosol absorption at 370 nm (18–42%) at 9 different French sites. Moreover, an excellent correlation with levoglucosan (r2 = 0.9 and slope = 22.2 at 370 nm), suggesting important contribution of wood burning emissions to ambient BrC aerosols in France. At all sites, BrC peaks were mainly observed during late evening, linking to local intense residential wood burning during this time period. Furthermore, the geographic origin analysis also highlighted the high potential contribution of local and/or small-regional emissions to BrC. Focusing on the Paris region, twice higher BrC mass absorption efficiency value was obtained for less oxidized biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) compared to more oxidized BBOA (e.g., about 4.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.1 m2 g−1, respectively, at 370 nm). Finally, the BBOA direct radiative effect was found to be 40% higher when these two BBOA fractions are treated as light-absorbing species, compared to the non-absorbing BBOA scenario.
Keywords: Brown carbon, Multi sites, Residential wood burning, Mass absorption efficiency, France
Published in RUNG: 20.07.2020; Views: 3126; Downloads: 0
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