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11.
Status of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory
Niraj Dhital, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Pierre Auger Observatory has been very successful in determining many aspects of the highest-energy cosmic rays including, among others, the flux suppression at energies above 4 × 10[sup]19 eV, stringent upper limits on photon and neutrino fluxes at ultra-high energies and an unexpected evolution of the mass composition with energy. We expect an extension of the frontiers of our knowledge on these aspects from a major upgrade of the Observatory. The upgrade, known as AugerPrime, will include an addition of a 4 sq. m Surface Scintillator Detector atop each water-Cherenkov station of the Surface array. The new detectors will provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to perform a complementary measurement of the shower particles and thus determine the primary mass composition with good accuracy on an event-by-event basis. AugerPrime will also include an upgrade of electronics, installation of the AMIGA Underground Muon Detector and a change of observation mode of the Fluorescence Detector, which will increase its current duty cycle by about 50%. Current status of the upgrade with the main focus on the Surface Scintillator Detectors will be presented, following a brief description of the physics motivation for the upgrade.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), Pierre Auger Observatory, AugerPrime upgrade
Published in RUNG: 11.10.2023; Views: 1104; Downloads: 5
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12.
Results from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Esteban Roulet, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, Lukas Zehrer, 2019, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Some of the results on ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that have been obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. These include measurements of the spectrum, composition and anisotropies. Possible astrophysical scenarios that account for these results are discussed.
Keywords: ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), Pierre Auger Observatory, UHECR energy spectrum, UHECR anisotropies, UHECR mass composition
Published in RUNG: 11.10.2023; Views: 893; Downloads: 5
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13.
Voltage-dependent FTIR and 2D infrared spectroscopies within the electric double layer using a plasmonic and conductive electrode
Nan Yang, Matthew J. Ryan, Minjung Son, Andraž Mavrič, Martin Zanni, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Strong electric fields exist between the electric double layer and charged surfaces. These fields impact molecular structures and chemistry at interfaces. We have developed a transparent electrode with infrared plasmonic enhancement sufficient to measure FTIR and two-dimensional infrared spectra at submonolayer coverages on the surface to which a voltage can be applied. Our device consists of an infrared transparent substrate, a 10–20 nm layer of conductive indium tin oxide (ITO), an electrically resistive layer of 3–5 nm Al2O3, and a 3 nm layer of nonconductive plasmonic gold. The materials and thicknesses are set to maximize the surface number density of the monolayer molecules, electrical conductivity, and plasmonic enhancement while minimizing background signals and avoiding Fano line shape distortions. The design was optimized by iteratively characterizing the material roughness and thickness with atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy and by monitoring the plasmon resonance enhancement with spectroscopy. The design is robust to repeated fabrication. This new electrode is tested on nitrile functional groups using a monolayer of 4-mercaptobenzonitrile as well as on CO and CC stretching modes using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid methyl ester. A voltage-dependent Stark shift is observed on both monolayers. We also observe that the transition dipole strength of the CN mode scales linearly with the applied voltage, providing a second way of measuring the surface electric field strength. We anticipate that this cell will enable many new voltage-dependent infrared experiments under applied voltages.
Keywords: two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, infrared transparent substrate, voltage-dependent infrared experiments
Published in RUNG: 24.02.2023; Views: 1276; Downloads: 2
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14.
Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of amorphous Ga2O3 for solar-blind photodetection
Ze-Yu Fan, Min-Ji Yang, Bo-Yu Fan, Andraž Mavrič, Nadiia Pastukhova, Matjaž Valant, Bo-Lin Li, Kuang Feng, Dong-Liang Liu, Guang-Wei Deng, Qiang Zhou, Yan-Bo Li, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Wide-bandgap gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is one of the most promising semiconductor materials for solar-blind (200 nm–280 nm) photodetection. In its amorphous form, a-Ga2O3 maintains its intrinsic optoelectronic properties while can be prepared at a low growth temperature, thus is compatible with Si integrated circuits (ICs) technology. Herein, the a-Ga2O3 film is directly deposited on pre-fabricated Au interdigital electrodes by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) at a growth temperature of 250 °C. The stoichiometric a-Ga2O3 thin film with a low defect density is achieved owing to the mild PE-ALD condition. As a result, the fabricated Au/a-Ga2O3/Au photodetector shows a fast time response, high responsivity, and excellent wavelength selectivity for solar-blind photodetection. Furthermore, an ultra-thin MgO layer is deposited by PE-ALD to passivate the Au/a-Ga2O3/Au interface, resulting in the responsivity of 788 A/W (under 254 nm at 10 V), a 250-nm-to-400-nm rejection ratio of 9.2×103, and the rise time and the decay time of 32 ms and 6 ms, respectively. These results demonstrate that the a-Ga2O3 film grown by PE-ALD is a promising candidate for high-performance solar-blind photodetection and potentially can be integrated with Si ICs for commercial production.
Keywords: Amorphous gallium oxide, Passivation layer, Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition, Responsivity, Solar-blind photodetector
Published in RUNG: 25.10.2022; Views: 1249; Downloads: 0
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15.
Investigation of the effective transmittance of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar
Fei Gao, Fengjia Gao, Xiao Yang, Gaipan Li, Li Wang, Meng Wang, Dengxin Hua, Griša Močnik, Samo Stanič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Effective transmittance is an important parameter of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the retrieval of aerosol optical properties using the multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar, which is a function of the complex degree of coherence. In this paper, we retrieve the parameter of the complex degree of coherence for the multi-longitudinal-mode laser from the theoretical analysis, optical simulation and experimental measurements, which are 0.726, 0.678 and 0.453 using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the optimal optical path difference of two times of laser optical cavity length (∼1000 mm) and under the light illumination of the high power Nd:YAG laser with the mode number of 101 and mode interval of 300 MHz under the condition of laser linewidth of 1 cm−1 (30 GHz). The preliminary measurement results of aerosol optical properties using the constructing multi-longitudinal-mode high-spectral-resolution lidar show that the difference of the complex degree of coherence retrieved from the presented methods results in the relative error of 40% in the aerosol backscattering coefficient with thin cloud layer and 90% with the presence of dense aerosol layer.
Keywords: effective transmittance, Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Multi-logitudinal-mode laser, High-spectral-resolution lidar
Published in RUNG: 20.09.2022; Views: 1572; Downloads: 0
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16.
Investigation of Aerosol Types and Vertical Distributions Using Polarization Raman Lidar over Vipava Valley
Longlong Wang, Marija Bervida, Samo Stanič, Klemen Bergant, Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Zhenping Yin, Yang Yi, Detlef Müller, Xuan Wang, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Aerosol direct radiative forcing is strongly dependent on aerosol distributions and aerosol types. A detailed understanding of such information is still missing at the Alpine region, which currently undergoes amplified climate warming. Our goal was to study the vertical variability of aerosol types within and above the Vipava valley (45.87◦ N, 13.90◦ E, 125 m a.s.l.) to reveal the vertical impact of each particular aerosol type on this region, a representative complex terrain in the Alpine region which often suffers from air pollution in the wintertime. This investigation was performed using the entire dataset of a dual-wavelength polarization Raman lidar system, which covers 33 nights from September to December 2017. The lidar provides measurements from midnight to early morning (typically from 00:00 to 06:00 CET) to provide aerosol-type dependent properties, which include particle linear depolarization ratio, lidar ratio at 355 nm and the aerosol backscatter Ångström exponent between 355 nm and 1064 nm. These aerosol properties were compared with similar studies, and the aerosol types were identified by the measured aerosol optical properties. Primary anthropogenic aerosols within the valley are mainly emitted from two sources: individual domestic heating systems, which mostly use biomass fuel, and traffic emissions. Natural aerosols, such as mineral dust and sea salt, are mostly transported over large distances. A mixture of two or more aerosol types was generally found. The aerosol characterization and statistical properties of vertical aerosol distributions were performed up to 3 km.
Keywords: valley air pollution, aerosol vertical distributions, lidar remote sensing, aerosol identification
Published in RUNG: 21.07.2022; Views: 1506; Downloads: 28
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17.
18.
A pyrrolopyridazinedione-based copolymer for fullerene-free organic solar cells
Astrid-Caroline Knall, Samuel Rabensteiner, Sebastian F. Hoefler, Matiss Reinfelds, Mathias Hobisch, Heike M. A. Ehmann, Nadiia Pastukhova, Egon Pavlica, Gvido Bratina, Illie Hanzu, Shuguang Wen, Renqiang Yang, Gregor Trimmel, Thomas Rath, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The recent success of non-fullerene acceptors in organic photovoltaics also entails a change in the requirements to the polymer donor in terms of optical and morphological properties leading to a demand for novel conjugated polymers. Herein, we report on the synthesis of a 1,4-bis-(thiophene-2-yl)-pyrrolopyridazinedione based copolymer with 2-ethylhexyl substituents on the pyrrolopyridazinedione moiety. A 2D conjugated benzodithiophene (BDT) was chosen as comonomer. The resulting copolymer T-EHPPD-T-EHBDT showed a molecular weight of 10.2 kDa, an optical band gap of 1.79 eV, a hole mobility of 1.8 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1 and a preferred face-on orientation with regard to the substrate. The comparably wide band gap as well as the determined energy levels (HOMO: −5.47 eV, LUMO: −3.68 eV) match well with the narrow band gap non-fullerene acceptor ITIC-F, which was used as the acceptor phase in the bulk heterojunction absorber layers in the investigated solar cells. The solar cells, prepared in inverted architecture, revealed power conversion efficiencies up to 7.4% using a donor:acceptor ratio of 1 : 1 in the absorber layer.
Keywords: non-fullerene solar cells, charge transport, charge mobility, power conversion efficiency
Published in RUNG: 27.01.2021; Views: 2677; Downloads: 0
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19.
Sonic happenings : the ecology of feedback loops to capture the energy of the moment
2020, radio or television broadcast, podcast, interview, press conference

Keywords: lo tech, feedback loop, multichannel, installation, programming, audio, embodiment
Published in RUNG: 22.01.2021; Views: 2426; Downloads: 38
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20.
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