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1.
Radio interferometry applied to air showers recorded by the Auger engineering radio array
H. Schoorlemmer, Andrej Filipčič, Jon Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: A new radio interferometric technique was recently developed that takes into account time lags caused by the three-dimensional dependency of the refractive index in the atmosphere. It enables us to track the extensive air shower while it propagates through the atmosphere. Using this technique, properties of the air shower can be estimated, like the depth of maximum and the axis of propagation. In order to apply this method, strict constraints on the time-synchronisation between radio antennas in an array must be satisfied. In this contribution, we show that the Auger Engineering Radio Array can meet these timing criteria by operating a time reference beacon. We will show how this enables us to reconstruct air shower properties using the radio interferometric technique.
Keywords: ultra-high energy cosmic rays, Pierre Auger Observatory, Auger engineering radio array, radio interferometry
Published in RUNG: 23.01.2024; Views: 310; Downloads: 4
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2.
Long-term calibration and stability of the Auger Engineering Radio Array using the diffuse Galactic radio emission
R. M. de Almeida, Andrej Filipčič, Jonathan Paul Lundquist, Shima Ujjani Shivashankara, Samo Stanič, Serguei Vorobiov, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), part of the Pierre Auger Observatory, is currently the largest facility to measure radio emissions from ultra-high energy extensive air showers. It comprises 153 autonomous radio-detector stations, covering an area of 17 km^2, and measures radio waves in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. An accurate description of the detector response is necessary to interpret the data collected by the stations correctly. Previously, this was achieved by measuring the analog chain in the laboratory and simulating and measuring the directional response of the antenna. In this work, we perform an absolute calibration using the continuously monitored sidereal modulation of the diffuse Galactic radio emission. The calibration is performed by comparing the average spectra recorded by the stations with a model of the full radio sky propagated through the system response, including the antenna, filters, and amplifiers. We describe the method to determine the calibration constants for each antenna and present the corresponding results. Furthermore, the behavior of the calibration constants is studied as a function of time. There is no relevant aging effect over a timescale of a decade, which shows that radio detectors could help monitor possible aging effects of other detector systems during long-term operations, stressing their importance in determining an absolute energy scale.
Keywords: pierre auger observatory, auger engineering radio array, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, radio detectors
Published in RUNG: 22.01.2024; Views: 390; Downloads: 6
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Status and Prospects of the Auger Engineering Radio Array
Johannes Schulz, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory. It is used to detect radio emission from extensive air showers in the 30 - 80 MHz frequency band. A focus of interest is the dependence of the radio emission on shower parameters such as the energy and the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum. After three phases of deployment, AERA now consists of 153 autonomous radio stations with different spacings, covering an area of about 17 km2. The size, station spacings, and geographic location at the same site or near other Auger extensions, are all targeted at cosmic ray energies above 10[sup]17 eV. The array allows us to explore different technical schemes to measure the radio emission as well as to cross calibrate our measurements with the established baseline detectors of the Auger Observatory. We present the most recent technological developments and selected experimental results obtained with AERA.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), radio emission from extensive air showers, detector cross-calibration
Published in RUNG: 03.03.2016; Views: 4567; Downloads: 196
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9.
The Energy Content of Extensive Air Showers in the Radio Frequency Range of 30-80 MHz
Christian Glaser, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: At the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we have developed a new method to measure the total amount of energy that is transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission. We find that this radiation energy is an estimator of the cosmic ray energy. It scales quadratically with the cosmic ray energy, as expected for coherent emission. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicular to the geomagnetic field at the Auger site, in the frequency band of the detector from 30 to 80 MHz. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated energies and arrival directions of the cosmic rays. We find energy resolutions of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the complete data set, and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five stations with signal.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), extensive air showers, radio reconstruction: energy resolution
Published in RUNG: 03.03.2016; Views: 4683; Downloads: 210
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10.
Lightning Detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory
Julian Rautenberg, Andrej Filipčič, Gašper Kukec Mezek, Ahmed Saleh, Samo Stanič, Marta Trini, Darko Veberič, Serguei Vorobiov, Lili Yang, Danilo Zavrtanik, Marko Zavrtanik, 2015, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The Auger Engineering Radio Array, an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory with antennas in the MHz range, requires to monitor the atmospheric conditions, which have a large influence on the radio emission of air showers. In particular, amplified signals up to an order of magnitude have been detected as an affect of thunderstorms. For a more detailed investigation and more generally, for detecting thunderstorms, a new lightning detection system has been installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition, an electric-field mill measures the field strength on ground level at the antenna array. With these measurements, data periods affected by thunderstorms can be identified. Additionally, a lightning trigger for the water-Cherenkov detectors was developed to read out individual stations when a lightning was detected nearby. With these data, a possible correlation between the formation of lightning and cosmic rays can be investigated even at low energies of about 10[sup]15 eV. The structure and functionality of the lightning detection are described and first data analyses are shown.
Keywords: Pierre Auger Observatory, Auger Engineering Radio Array, atmospheric monitoring, lightning detectors
Published in RUNG: 03.03.2016; Views: 4463; Downloads: 198
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