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Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical screening of Mushrooms, Lenzites betulinus, and Coriolopsis gallica extracts.
Soji Fakoya, Sandra Oloketuyi, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: AIM: The spread of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria makes it necessary to discover new classes of antibacterial and compounds that inhibit these resistant mechanisms. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Lenzites betulinus and Coriolopsis gallica extracts against some bacterial isolates of medical importance. METHOD: The organisms are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli. Using agar well diffusion assay, the ethanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extract of C. gallica was assayed against the bacterial isolates and the result showed that Petroleum ether extract of C. gallica and L. betulinus was able to inhibit P. vulgaris with inhibition zones of 26.0 mm and 20.0 mm respectively. RESULTS: Ethanolic extract of C. gallica also inhibited P. vulgaris with inhibition zone of 22.0 mm while aqueous extract and petroleum ether of L. betulinus inhibited P. aeruginosa with inhibition zones of 20.0 mm and 23.0 mm respectively. E. coli and S. aureus were also inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extract of L. betulinus with zones of inhibition 15.0 mm and 26.0 mm against E. coli while 19.0 mm and 22.0 mm against S. aureus respectively. This study also showed the presence of some phytochemicals like tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, steroids, and saponin in the mushrooms with antimicrobial effects against the bacterial isolates used. CONCLUSION: The active components present in ethanolic, aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of C. gallica include phenolics, flavonoids, and steroids while phytochemicals obtained from L. betulinus are phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, and saponin respectively.
Keywords: Coriolopsis gallica, Lenzites betulinus, Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, Bacterial İsolates
Published in RUNG: 14.01.2021; Views: 2247; Downloads: 0
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Characterization of bacterial cellulose films combined with chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol: Evaluation of mechanical and barrier properties
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter xylinus is a biomaterial with a unique three-dimensional structure. To improve the mechanical properties and reinforce the BC films, they were immersed in polyvinyl alcohol (0–4%) and chitosan (0–1%) baths. Moisture content, mechanical properties and water vapour perme- ability were measured to assess the effect of polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan. The morphology, optical, structural and thermal properties were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Results showed that moisture content was significantly affected by the chitosan presence. Tensile strength values in the 20.76–41.65 MPa range were similar to those of synthetic polymer films. Percentage of elongation ranged from 2.28 to 21.82% and Young's modulus ranged from 1043.88 to 2247.82 MPa. The water vapour permeability (1.47×10−11–3.40×10−11 g/m s Pa) decreased with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The developed films own UV light barrier properties and optimal visual appearance.
Keywords: Films, Bacterial cellulose, Water vapor permeability, Chitosan, Polyvinyl alcohol, UV protection
Published in RUNG: 14.12.2020; Views: 2478; Downloads: 0
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Environmentally Friendly Films Combining Bacterial Cellulose, Chitosan, and Polyvinyl Alcohol: Effect of Water Activity on Barrier, Mechanical, and Optical Properties
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, Gonzalo Velazquez, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: The interest in developing new materials intended for food packaging based on bacterial cellulose is growing in the recent years. Flexible and transparent films from bacterial cellulose-chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol have shown excellent UV-barrier properties. However, this composite material interacts with ambient moisture modifying its water activity due to its hydrophilic nature. In this work, an extensive study was carried out to evaluate the changes in the properties of these films as a function of water activity. Moisture adsorption isotherm were described by the GAB method. Results showed the plasticizing effect of water molecules increasing the water vapour permeability of the samples from 1.86·10-12 to 1.17·10-11 g/m·s·Pa, the percentage of elongation from 3.25 to 36.55% and the distance to burst from 0.64 to 5.12 mm. The increase of the water activity dropped the tensile strength values from 74.76 to 38.56 MPa, Young’s modulus values from 3133.46 to 30.71 MPa and burst strength to 703.87 g. The values of the UV-barrier were maintained at the wide range of water activity. Consequently, water molecules do not affect the UV-barrier properties of the films.
Keywords: GAB model, moisture adsorption isotherms, plasticization, bacterial cellulose, mechanical properties, UV-barrier properties, moisture content
Published in RUNG: 09.12.2020; Views: 2731; Downloads: 0
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Bacterial cellulose films: Evaluation of the water interaction
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Bacterial cellulose is a biopolymer that is gaining attention due to its 3D structure, higher purity, porosity and surface area. However, this material can interact with water molecules from the surrounding environment, resulting in alterations of its properties. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyze the modifications on the mechanical, water vapor permeability and optical properties of bacterial cellulose films as a function of the water activity. Results indicated that water acted as a plasticizer, mainly affecting mechanical and water vapor permeability properties. The moisture adsorption isotherms allowed predicting the moisture content of the bacterial cellulose films at several relative humidity conditions. Values for tensile strength and burst strength ranged from 15.50 to 22.28 MPa and from 145.03–338.10 g, respectively. The elongation and the distance to burst ranged from 1.36 to 3.71 % and from 0.39 to 1.86 mm, respectively. These values increased due to the plasticizing effect of the water molecules. Water vapor permeability values ranged from 1.35·10−12 to 3.13·10-11 g/ m s Pa, showing a significant increase up to 0.48 of water activity. Bacterial cellulose films showed excellent UV-barrier properties in the different water activities evaluated.
Keywords: GAB model, Moisture adsorption isotherms, Bacterial cellulose, Mechanical properties, UV-barrier properties
Published in RUNG: 09.12.2020; Views: 2703; Downloads: 0
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UV-protecting films based on bacterial cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol: effect of water activity on barrier, mechanical and optical properties
Patricia Cazón, Gonzalo Velazquez, Manuel Vazquez, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Biodegradable films based on bacterial cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol are a new alternative to develop food packaging with the capac- ity to retard or inhibit the effect of UV radiation. However, these compounds are sensitive to moisture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the modifications of the mechanical, water vapor permeability and optical properties of these composite films depending on their water activity. Results showed that water molecules acted as a plasticizer agent, modifying the mechanical, water vapor perme- ability and optical properties of the developed films. However, an overplastification process took place at higher activity water, resulting in a weakness of film structure and decreasing drastically the elongation. The transmittance in the UV–VIS light region decreased when the activity water increased. No significant variations were observed in color, trans- parency or opacity properties.
Keywords: GAB model, Moisture adsorption isotherms, Plasticization, Bacterial cellulose, Mechanical properties, UV-barrier properties
Published in RUNG: 09.12.2020; Views: 2626; Downloads: 94
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Improving bacterial cellulose films by ex-situ and in-situ modifications: a review
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vazquez, 2021, review article

Abstract: The high intake of plastic materials for food packaging causes environmental problems due to the nonbiodegradable properties of these materials. High, low and very low-density polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polypropylene are the main materials used. Biodegradable polymers from natural sources are potential raw materials to develop novel food packaging. Bacterial cellulose is a material with extraordinary properties that is gaining special interest for applications in the Food Industry. The excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability and barrier to water vapor, oxygen and UV radiation of bacterial cellulose compared to other polysaccharides make this material very attractive and a potential alternative to non-biodegradable synthetic materials. Nevertheless, bacterial cellulose films are limited due to their lower elasticity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the ex-situ and in-situ modifications of bacterial cellulose to improve its properties for the development of films for food packaging.
Keywords: Bacterial cellulose, In-situ modifications, Ex-situ modifications, Food packaging.
Published in RUNG: 09.12.2020; Views: 2727; Downloads: 0
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Regional biodiversity and seasonal dynamics of the bacterial communities in karstic springs of Slovenia
Maja Opalički Slabe, 2019, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Information on groundwater’s natural bacterial communities is important for evaluating pristine groundwater’s quality, as environmental changes potentially lead to alterations in bacterial community structures. In four seasons, 15 hypothetically pristine springs across five karst eco-regions in Slovenia (Central Europe) were analysed during their low discharge, and their basic physical and chemical parameters were recorded. The diversity of bacterial community structures was assessed with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting method. Total cell counts as bacterial abundance and electron transport system activity as bacterial respiratory activity were used for quantitative evaluation of bacterial communities. To detect anthropogenic pollution, spring water was tested by the cultivation of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results indicate distinct regional differences in environmental parameters, bacterial respiratory activity, presence of coliforms and E. coli, bacterial abundances, and qualitative bacterial community structures, but there were no regional differences in the numbers of operational taxonomic units and biodiversity indices (Shannon-Wiener’s and Simpson’s diversity index, Buzas and Gibson’s evenness). The analysis of seasonal environmental parameters showed significant differences in dissolved organic carbon and pH, and also significant changes in bacterial respiratory activity and abundances, as well as differences in bacterial community structures, the numbers of operational taxonomic units, and biodiversity indices. No seasonal variations were shown for coliforms and E. coli. Despite seasonal oscillations, regional differences prevailed among five karst eco-regions and indicate a significant influence on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of groundwater bacterial community structures. The study confirmed both regional and seasonal differences in groundwater bacterial community structures, which should be included in further sustainable management plans of the aquifers.
Keywords: karst springs, bacterial community structure (BCS), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), total cell counts (TCC), electron transport system activity (ETSA)
Published in RUNG: 26.06.2019; Views: 4028; Downloads: 191
.pdf Full text (3,76 MB)

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